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Morphological Evaluation of PLA/Soybean Oil Epoxidized Acrylate Three-Dimensional Scaffold in Bone Tissue Engineering

Mahmood Hameed Majeed*, Nabeel Kadhem Abd Alsaheb
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Al Nahrain University, Al Jadriya Bridge, Baghdad, 64074, Iraq
* Corresponding Authors: Mahmood Hameed Majeed. Email: ;

Journal of Renewable Materials 2022, 10(9), 2391-2408. https://doi.org/10.32604/jrm.2022.019887

Received 22 October 2021; Accepted 14 January 2022; Issue published 30 May 2022

Abstract

Tissue engineering’s main goal is to regenerate or replace tissues or organs that have been destroyed by disease, injury, or congenital disabilities. Tissue engineering now uses artificial supporting structures called scaffolds to restore damaged tissues and organs. These are utilized to attach the right cells and then grow them. Rapid prototyping appears to be the most promising technology due to its high level of precision and control. Bone tissue replacement “scaffolding” is a common theme discussed in this article. The fused deposition technique was used to construct our scaffold, and a polymer called polylactic acids and soybean oil resin were used to construct our samples. The samples were then divided into two groups; the first group was left without immersion in the simulated body fluid and served as a control for comparison. The second group was immersed in the simulated body fluid. The results of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to interpret the surface attachment to ions, elements, and compounds, giving us a new perspective on scaffold architecture. In this study, an innovative method has been used to print therapeutic scaffold that combines fused deposition three-dimensional printing with ultraviolet curing to create a high-quality biodegradable polymeric scaffold. Finally, the results demonstrate that adding soybean oil resin to the PLA increased ion attachment to the surface while also attracting tricalcium phosphate formation on the surface of the scaffold, which is highly promising in bone tissue replacement. In conclusion, the soybean oil resin, which is new in the field of bone tissue engineering, shows magnificent characteristics and is a good replacement biopolymer that replaces many ceramic and polymeric materials used in this field that have poor morphological characteristics.

Graphical Abstract

Morphological Evaluation of PLA/Soybean Oil Epoxidized Acrylate Three-Dimensional Scaffold in Bone Tissue Engineering

Keywords

Bone tissue engineering; polylactic acid; soybean oil; biodegradable polymers; fused deposition modeling; scaffold

Cite This Article

Majeed, M. H., Kadhem, N. (2022). Morphological Evaluation of PLA/Soybean Oil Epoxidized Acrylate Three-Dimensional Scaffold in Bone Tissue Engineering. Journal of Renewable Materials, 10(9), 2391–2408.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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