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In the article, Yuhua Yang, Jun Zhou and co-workers construct a yolk-shell Ni3P–carbon @ reduced graphene oxides paper (NPC @ RGO) for first time, Ni3P particles are inside the bacteria carbon by bacteria absorption and well enwrapped, so during the course of charging/discharging, the Ni3P particles will not be pulverized into electrolyte.

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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mechanical Properties, Microstructure and Surface Quality of Polypropylene Green Composites as a Function of Sunflower Husk Waste Filler Particle Size and Content

    Mateusz Barczewski1,*, Jacek Andrzejewski1,*, Radomir Majchrowski2, Kamil Dobrzycki1, Krzysztof Formela3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 841-853, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014490
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Polymeric Composites Based on Sustainable Technologies and Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Agricultural waste is a still untapped source of materials that can, in case of proper utilization, significantly improve the sustainability of polymers and their composites. In this work, polymer composites based on isotactic polypropylene were produced incorporating ground sunflower husk in the amount of 10 wt% and 20 wt%. The work’s main objective is to evaluate how preliminary fractioning of this agricultural waste filler affects the thermomechanical properties, microstructure and surface topology of polypropylene-based injection molded composites. The composites were analyzed for mechanical properties (tensile, impact strength and hardness), thermomechanical properties (Vicat softening point VST, heat deflection temperature HDT, and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Bacteria Absorption-based Yolk-Shell Ni3P-Carbon @ Reduced Graphene Oxides for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Yuhua Yang1,2, Ke Xu1, Bo Zhao1, Nana Liu1, Jun Zhou3,4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 855-865, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014525
    Abstract Traditional carbon layer enwrapping active materials cannot easily realize perfect cladding. Therefore, it still cannot prevent the pulverization of active materials during the course of charging/discharging. In this paper, we utilize natural bacteria to absorb nickel acetate, the active materials Ni3P nanoparticles are well enwrapped, as a natural organisms surviving for billions of years, their cell walls have a perfect carbon structure, and the cell walls become carbon layer through high annealing temperature. Based on this, the yolk-shell Ni3P–carbon @ reduced graphene oxides paper is prepared, through a proper annealing temperature, the Ni3P particles disperse in the inner surface or… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Characterization of Thermoplastic Poly(Ester Amide)s Elastomer (TPEaE) Obtained from Recycled PET

    Zhi-Yu Yang, Yi-Ling Chou, Hao-Chun Yang, Chin-Wen Chen*, Syang-Peng Rwei*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 867-880, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014476
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plastic waste management towards a sustainable future)
    Abstract A series of thermoplastic polyester elastomer (TPEE) and thermoplastic poly(ester amide)s elastomer (TPEaE) copolymers were obtained by depolymerizing PET (polyethylene terephthalate) by which the waste PET can be efficiently recovered and recycled into value-added products from a practical and economical point of view. The structure of TPEE and TPEaE was identified using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data showed that the melting temperature (Tm) decreased with the amide content increased. The glass transition temperature (Tg) was increased as introducing the amide group, and the formation of amide-ester and amide-amide hydrogen bonds… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Organosolv Lignin for Non-Isocyanate Based Polyurethanes (NIPU) as Wood Adhesive

    Jaša Saražin1, Antonio Pizzi2, Siham Amirou2, Detlef Schmiedl3, Milan Šernek1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 881-907, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015047
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives)
    Abstract A non-isocyanate-based polyurethane (NIPU) wood adhesive was produced from organosolv lignin, which is a bio-sourced raw material, available in large quantities and produced as a by-product of the paper industry. The formulation of this new lignin-based NIPU adhesive, which is presented, was chemically characterised by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI ToF) mass spectrometry and by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometry analyses. The oligomers formed were determined and showed that the three species involved in the NIPU adhesive preparation were formed by the co-reaction of the three reagents used: lignin, dimethyl carbonate, and hexamethylene diamine. Linear and branched… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation and Properties of Bio-Based Flame Retardant Polyvinyl Alcohol

    You Shu1,2, Qionglin Luo2, Hongwei Lin2,*, Yuejun Ouyang2, Xiaomin Zhang1,2, Liping Sheng1, Shengpei Su1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 909-921, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014216
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Food Packaging Materials Based on Renewable Resources)
    Abstract Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been widely used in the fields of medical, food and packaging due to its excellent biocompatibility, good fiber-forming and film-forming properties. However, the high flammability of PVA has greatly limited its wider applications. The flame-retardant PVA was prepared by melt blending of a bio-based flame retardant (prepared from lignin, phosphoric acid and carbamide) with thermoplastic PVA (TPVA). The chemical structure, morphology, thermal properties, mechanical properties, fire property and fluidity of this flame retardant PVA were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope(SEM), thermogravimetric analyzer(TGA), impact tester, universal testing machine, horizontal-vertical burning tester,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Plastocene Embedment in the Microperforated Plate on Its Acoustic Performance

    Yipu Wang1, Yonghua Wang1,2,*, Zheming Liu1, Huadong Yu1, Jinkai Xu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 923-941, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014138
    Abstract Noise pollution is one of the contemporary environmental pollution, which seriously damages people’s green and healthy life. In order to further improve the low frequency sound absorption performance of microperforated panel (MPP), a new plastocene coupled microperforated plate (PCMPP) is proposed. The acoustic properties of PCMPP with different apertures and perforation ratio were measured by transfer function method and compared with that of conventional MPPs. It is found that when the aperture was 0.8 mm, the peak value of sound absorption coefficient of PCMPP decreased by 150 Hz compared with MPP. In a certain range, PCMPP with larger apertures showed… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthetic Process of Bio-Based Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive Derived from Demethylated Wheat Straw Alkali Lignin and Its Curing Behavior

    Yan Song1,2, Zhixin Wang3, Xin Zhang4, Rong Zhang1, Jinchun Li1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 943-957, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014131
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives)
    Abstract Lignin is a natural biopolymer with a complex three-dimensional network, commercially obtained from waste liquid of paper pulp and bioethanol production, and could be a candidate for preparation of environment-friendly bio-based polyphenol material. In the present work, the demethylated wheat straw alkali lignin (D-Lig), prepared by demethylation of wheat straw alkali lignin (Lig) using an in-situ generated Lewis acid, was used to synthesize bio-based phenol formaldehyde resin adhesive (D-LPF) applied in plywood. Effects of synthetic process’s factors, including lignin substitution for phenol, NaOH concentration and molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol, on the bonding strength and free formaldehyde content of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fabrication of Crack-Free Flattened Bamboo and Its Macro-/Micro-Morphological and Mechanical Properties

    Zhichao Lou1,2, Tiancheng Yuan1, Qiuyi Wang1, Xinwu Wu1, Shouheng Hu1, Xiaomeng Hao1, Xianmiao Liu3,*, Yanjun Li1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 959-977, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014285
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable building materials and properties)
    Abstract This work aimed to help the bamboo industry develop methodology for producing imperfection-free bamboo boards that can serve either decorative or structural benefit to consumers seeking to engage with the bioeconomy. Specifi- cally, softened and slotted bamboo tubes were handled by a roller device with nails to render crack-free flattened bamboo board. Softening temperature and time were optimized herein according to findings regarding chemical composition and board mechanical properties. The optimal softening parameters for saturated steam heat treatment is proved to be 160°C for 8 minutes. The flattened bamboo board possesses an increased bending strength of 101.5 MPa and a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Physicochemical Properties Comparative Analysis of Corn Starch and Cassava Starch, and Comparative Analysis as Adhesive

    Xiaojian Chen1, Wenrui Yao1, Feifei Gao1, Dingyuan Zheng1, Qiong Wang3, Jun Cao2,*, Haiyan Tan1, Yanhua Zhang1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 979-992, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014751
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives)
    Abstract The morphology and properties of corn starch and cassava starch were compared by SEM, DSC and TGA. The effects of amylose and amylopectin content on starch properties were studied by FT-IR, XRD and XPS. The plywood was pressed with the prepared adhesive and the bonding strength of the plywood was tested to analyze the difference among the adhesives from different plant sources and the difference after blending PAPI prepolymer. FT-IR results showed that the hydroxyl peak of cassava starch was stronger and wider. TGA showed that the residue of cassava starch was lower, but the thermal stability of cassava starch… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Discrete Element Simulation of Asphalt Pavement Milling Process to Improve the Utilization of Milled Old Mixture

    Jianmin Wu*, Bingbing Zhang, Chunsheng Wu, Zhiqiang Shu, Shaoqing Li, Jianqi Yang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 993-1011, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014304
    Abstract In order to improve the utilization of milling materials, save stone resources and reduce milling energy consumption, the aged Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt was used as a binder to prepare AC-16 asphalt mixture to simulate old asphalt pavement materials. First, the test and discrete element simulation results of uniaxial compression tests were used to calibrate the parameters of the parallel bonding contact model between asphalt mortar and aggregates. On this basis, a microscopic model of the asphalt mixture was established to simulate the old asphalt pavement. Then, the discrete element software PFC (Particle Flow Code) was used to simulate the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Use of Scrapped Rubber Tires for Sustainable Construction of Manhole Covers

    Sadaqat Ullah Khan1, Afzal Ahmed1,*, Sajjad Ali2, Ayesha Ayub2, Ahmed Shuja1, Muhammad Ahsan Shahid1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 1013-1029, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014344
    Abstract Scrapped tires from vehicles are produced in large quantities. Despite numerous existing uses of scrapped tires, a large quantity ends up at the landfill sites, which contributes to environmental degradation. The development of more applications of scrapped tire usage can reduce the disposal of tires at landfill sites. This research proposes a novel use of scrapped tires by using the strips taken from scrapped tires in replacement of steel bars as reinforcement. Manhole covers were produced using scrapped tires by completely replacing the steel with scrapped tires. Four different samples of manhole covers were prepared and tested. The highest bearing… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Dynamic Changes of Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) Culms under Different Storage Conditions

    Hui Zhan1,2, Zhaohui Niu1, Lixia Yu1, Maobiao Li1, Changming Wang1, Shuguang Wang1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 1031-1043, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014109
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable building materials and properties)
    Abstract The durability of bamboo based on its chemical and mechanical properties is a crucial consideration for the wood-based industry due to its vulnerability to insects and microorganisms. We investigated the dynamic changes of chemical and mechanical properties of Phyllostachys edulis under air-dry and water storage conditions for 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. The chemical properties of P. edulis bamboo culms varied with culm age but insignificantly with culm height. The mechanical properties of P. edulis culms showed an increasing trend with culm age. Water storage condition decreased the ash, SiO2 and lignin content, but increased the ethanol-benzene extracts. It… More >

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