Special Issue "Renewable building materials and properties"

Submission Deadline: 31 January 2021 (closed)
Guest Editors

Professor Haitao Li, Joint Training PhD by Tongji University and the University of Western Australia, is the Vice Dean of College of Civil Engineering and director of International Research Center for Bio-composite Building Materials and Structures (IRCBBMS) at Nanjing Forestry University. He has published more than 100 papers and authorized more than 50 patents. He works as INBAR Construction Task Force Key Expert, ISO TC165 timber structure committee, member of a council of Civil Engineering Composite Materials Branch, China Composite Materials Society, Key Expert of Engineering Bamboo Materials Branch Committee, China Wood Protection Industry Association and so on. He is the co-chair of World Symposium on Sustainable Bio-composite Materials and Structures (SBMS) and International Conference on Advances in Civil Engineering and Materials (ACEM). He also works as the editor or reviewer for more than 20 SCI journals.


This Special Issue is mainly about the renewable building materials and structures, such as timber, bamboo, straw and other nature resources and structures and so on.

Papers about the test methods, mechanical properties and structural applications for renewable building materials from nature resources are welcome.

Bamboo; Wood; Timber; CLT; Straw; other renewable building materials; Strain; Stress; Strength; Modulus; Deflection; Stiffness; Ductility; Tensile; Compression; Shear; Bending; Bricks; Beam; Column; Joint; Frame

Published Papers
  • Long-Term Loading Test of Reinforced Glulam Beam
  • Abstract Due to creep characteristics of wood, long-term loading can cause a significant stress loss of steel bars in reinforced glulam beams and high long-term deflection of the beam midspan. In this study, 15 glulam beams were subjected to a 90-day long-term loading test, and the effects of long-term loading value, reinforcement ratio and prestress level on the stress of steel bars, midspan long-term deflection, and other parameters were compared and analyzed. The main conclusions drawn from this study were that the long-term deflection of the reinforced glulam beams accounted for 22.5%, 20.6%, and 18.2% of the total deflection respectively when… More
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  • Effect of Alkaline Electrolyzed Water on Performance Improvement of Green Concrete with High Volume of Mineral Admixtures
  • Abstract The strength and durability of concrete will be significantly reduced at high volume of mineral admixture, and the poor early strength of concrete also still needs to be solved. In this investigation, a highly active alkaline electrolyzed waters was used as mixing water to improve the early strength and enhance the durability of green concrete with high volume mineral admixture, the influences of alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) on hydration activity of mineral admixture and durability of concrete were determined. The results showed that compared with natural tap water, AEW can accelerate early hydration process of cement in concrete and produce… More
  • Graphical Abstract

    Effect of Alkaline Electrolyzed Water on Performance Improvement of Green Concrete with High Volume of Mineral Admixtures
  •   Views:1270       Downloads:739        Download PDF

  • Pore Structure Characteristics of Baking-Free Slag-Sludge Bricks and Its Correlations to Mechanical Properties
  • Abstract In order to explore the relationship between the macroscopic properties and pore structure characteristics of baking-free slag-sludge bricks, the compressive strength and water absorption rate using aluminum industrial slag and sludge of different substitution rates were tested. Optical instruments and image analysis software were used to measure the parameters of the pore structure. Specifically, a fractal model was built based on the fractal theory, in which the fractal dimension was used as the characteristic index of the pore structure to analyze the correlation and interaction mechanism between the fractal dimension and the macroscopic mechanical properties. Based on this study, conclusions… More
  •   Views:1593       Downloads:930        Download PDF

  • Study on Improvement of Hygroscopicity of Magnesite-Bonded Wood Wool Panel
  • Abstract Magnesite-bonded wood wool panel (MWWP) is an inorganic-bonded panel product in which wood excelsior is bonded with magnesite. Lowering the hygroscopicity is one of the key measures to improve the quality of the panel. In this study, moisture absorption mechanism of MWWP and measures generally applied to lower its hygroscopicity were reviewed. Three methods were then experimented to improve the dimensional stability of the panel, including adjusting the molar ratio of raw materials, adding additives and optimizing the conditioning process. The results showed that satisfying dimensional stability could be achieved when the molar ratio of MgO to MgCl2 was 5:1,… More
  • Graphical Abstract

    Study on Improvement of Hygroscopicity of Magnesite-Bonded Wood Wool Panel
  •   Views:1244       Downloads:827        Download PDF

  • Effect of the Proportion of Bamboo Scraps on the Properties of Bamboo Scraps/Magnesium Oxychloride Composites
  • Abstract This study was designed to solve the problem of large waste volume from bamboo processing residues in recent years. Using magnesium oxychloride (MO) cementitious material as the main material and bamboo residue (BR) as the reinforcing material, a BR/MO composite material was prepared. The effects of BR amount on the molding properties, mechanical strength, and water resistance of BR/MO composites were examined and discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize composite microscopic morphology, crystalline structure, and heat resistance. The results showed that, when the BR content was 1.00% (by wt), the flowability… More
  •   Views:1411       Downloads:771        Download PDF

  • An Experimental and Analytical Study on Cross-Laminated Bamboo Rocking Walls with Friction Dampers
  • Abstract

    Cross-laminated bamboo (CLB) have a high strength to weight ratio and stable bidirectional mechanical properties. Inspired by the investigation on cross-laminated timber (CLT) rocking walls, CLB rocking walls with conventional friction dampers (CFDs) are studied in this paper. To investigate the mechanical properties of the CLB rocking wall, seven tests are conducted under a cyclic loading scheme, and different test parameters, including the existence of the CFDs, the moment ratio, and the loading times, are discussed. The test results show a bilinear behavior of the CLB rocking wall. The small residual displacements of the CLB rocking wall demonstrate an idealized… More

  • Graphical Abstract

    An Experimental and Analytical Study on Cross-Laminated Bamboo Rocking Walls with Friction Dampers
  •   Views:1178       Downloads:809       Cited by:3        Download PDF

  • The Measurement of the Local Slip in Bamboo-Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Moment-Curvature and Bond-Stress
  • Abstract This paper presents a method of measuring local slip in bamboo-reinforced concrete beams. Local slips (so) are calculated by reducing the elongation of the bamboo reinforcement (ebo) with the elongation of the concrete (eco). The elongation of bamboo reinforcement (ebo) is determined in two ways, namely, read directly through a straingauge mounted on the bamboo reinforcement and calculated based on the force analysis or curvature moment as a control. The elongation of the concrete (eco) is calculated using force analysis or curvature moment. The process of calculating curvature moments and bond stress employs the Excel program. The steps in calculating… More
  • Graphical Abstract

    The Measurement of the Local Slip in Bamboo-Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Moment-Curvature and Bond-Stress
  •   Views:1737       Downloads:926        Download PDF

  • Control on Gradient Adhesive Loading of Porous Laminate: Effects on Multiple Performance of Composites with Bamboo Bundle and Sliver
  • Abstract Elementary units “bamboo bundle” and “bamboo sliver” were processed and cross-linked as “bamboo-bundle veneer (BBV)” and “bamboo-sliver veneer (BSV)” for preparation of laminated composites. The concept of “high-content-adhesive surface treatment” was raised to improve boards’ performance, rather than increasing adhesive absorption of every layer’s porous unit. That is, some BBVs experienced an extra “dipping & drying” to absorb more resin (named “HBBV”). The effect of the amount of knitting threads was also discussed for influencing BBV’s quality. Results indicated that light transmittance of BBVs decreased as the amount of threads added from 3 to 8, while mechanical stiffness increased. Adding… More
  •   Views:1351       Downloads:841        Download PDF

  • Characterization of the Flexural Behavior of Bamboo Beams
  • Abstract Bamboo is a renewable and environmentally friendly material often used for construction. This study investigates the flexural behavior of bamboo beams through theoretical and finite element (FE) analyses. Considering the material’s nonlinearity, a method of calculating load-deflection curves is proposed and validated via FE analysis. The interfacial slippage dominated by the shear stiffness of the interface between two bamboo poles significantly influences the flexural behavior of double-pole bamboo beams. Thus, the load-deflection curves for different shear stiffnesses can be obtained via theoretical and FE analyses. Subsequently, a novel configuration using diagonal steel bands to avoid slippage is presented. An inclination… More
  • Graphical Abstract

    Characterization of the Flexural Behavior of Bamboo Beams
  •   Views:1177       Downloads:887       Cited by:4        Download PDF

  • Bamboo Nail: A Novel Connector for Timber Assemblies
  • Abstract

    Nail connection is widely used in engineering and construction fields. In this study, bamboo nail was proposed as a novel connector for timber assemblies. Penetration depth of bamboo nail into wood was predicted and tested. The influence of nail parameters (length, radius and ogive radius) on penetration depth were verified. For both tested and predicted results, the penetration depth of bamboo nail increased with the increasing length, radius or ogive radius. In addition, the effect of densification on penetration depth or mechanical properties was evaluated. 1.12 g/cm3 was a critical density when densification was needed, and further increment of density… More

  •   Views:1141       Downloads:657        Download PDF

  • Structure Design and Properties of Three-Layer Particleboard Based on High Voltage Electrostatic Field (HVEF)
  • Abstract In this study, the effects of three different particle sizes of wood wastes (A = –8 + 12 mesh; B = –12 + 20 mesh; C = –20 + 30 mesh) and factory shavings (D) on the properties of particleboard were investigated. According to the test results, three-layer particleboard was designed. Particleboard face layers made with mixture of A, B, and C. The core layer made with D. The ratio of core layer to face layers is 50:50. Three-layer particleboard were fabricated with 12% urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins and three different high voltage electrostatic field intensities (0 kv, 30 kv, 60… More
  •   Views:1144       Downloads:752       Cited by:2        Download PDF

  • Effects of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Glulam Exposed to Outdoor Environment
  • Abstract This paper presents an experimental investigation to identify suitable indices to assess durability of glulam when subjected to freeze-thaw cycles in an exposed enviroenment. In this study, two types of glulam specimens were tested for their performance when subjected to different levels of aging due to freezing and thawing. Effect of aging treatment on various parameters including thickness swelling rate, static bending strength, elastic modulus, shear strength, and peeling rate of adhesive layer were studied. Obtained results showed that freeze-thaw aging treatment did not affect the water-resistance of the specimens as measured by thickness swelling rate and had little effect… More
  •   Views:1379       Downloads:966        Download PDF

  • Nodes Effect on the Bending Performance of Laminated Bamboo Lumber Unit
  • Abstract This research studied the ultimate bearing capacity of laminated bamboo lumber (LBL) unit and thereby calculated the maximum bending moment. The load-displacement chart for all specimens was obtained. Then the flexural capacity of members with and without bamboo nodes in the middle section was coMPared. The bending experiment phenomenon of LBL unit was concluded. Different failure modes of bending components were analysed and concluded. Finally, the bending behaviour of LBL units is coMPared with other bamboo and timber products. It is shown that the average ultimate load of BS members is 866.1 N, the average flexural strength is 101 MPa,… More
  •   Views:1445       Downloads:1541       Cited by:5        Download PDF

  • Dynamic Changes of Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) Culms under Different Storage Conditions
  • Abstract The durability of bamboo based on its chemical and mechanical properties is a crucial consideration for the wood-based industry due to its vulnerability to insects and microorganisms. We investigated the dynamic changes of chemical and mechanical properties of Phyllostachys edulis under air-dry and water storage conditions for 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. The chemical properties of P. edulis bamboo culms varied with culm age but insignificantly with culm height. The mechanical properties of P. edulis culms showed an increasing trend with culm age. Water storage condition decreased the ash, SiO2 and lignin content, but increased the ethanol-benzene extracts. It… More
  •   Views:1213       Downloads:869        Download PDF

  • Fabrication of Crack-Free Flattened Bamboo and Its Macro-/Micro-Morphological and Mechanical Properties
  • Abstract This work aimed to help the bamboo industry develop methodology for producing imperfection-free bamboo boards that can serve either decorative or structural benefit to consumers seeking to engage with the bioeconomy. Specifi- cally, softened and slotted bamboo tubes were handled by a roller device with nails to render crack-free flattened bamboo board. Softening temperature and time were optimized herein according to findings regarding chemical composition and board mechanical properties. The optimal softening parameters for saturated steam heat treatment is proved to be 160°C for 8 minutes. The flattened bamboo board possesses an increased bending strength of 101.5 MPa and a… More
  •   Views:2068       Downloads:1215       Cited by:18        Download PDF

  • Function of Palm Fiber in Stabilization of Alluvial Clayey Soil in Yangtze River Estuary
  • Abstract Palm fiber is one of the favorable materials used in stabilization of soft soil in geotechnical engineering projects in recent years due to its nature of sustainability, no harm to the environment, biodegradability, availability and cost-effectiveness in the context of widespread appeal from the world for returning to nature and protecting the earth our homestead. This paper is aimed at exploring the mechanical performance of Shanghai clayey soil reinforced with palm fiber. The unconfined compressive tests are carried out on samples treated with palm fibers of different lengths and contents, and the unconfined compressive strength (UCS), ductility rate (DR), secant… More
  •   Views:1259       Downloads:1177       Cited by:2        Download PDF

  • Analysis on Pore Structure of Non-Dispersible Underwater Concrete in Saline Soil Area
  • Abstract

    In this paper, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is used to test the pore structure of non-dispersible underwater concrete so as to study the influence of pouring and curing environment, age and slag powder on the pore characteristics of concrete, analyze the pore characteristics, porosity and pore distribution of concrete in different hydration stages, and reveal the relationship between pore structure and permeability of concrete. The results show that the pore-size distribution of concrete in fresh water condition is better than that in sulfate environment and mixed salt environment, and therefore, sulfate as well as mixed salt are not conducive to… More

  •   Views:1320       Downloads:1049       Cited by:2        Download PDF

  • Test and Analysis of the Sound Insulation Performance of Four Types of Timber Structure Floors under Jumping Excitation
  • Abstract To improve the impact sound insulation performance of building floors and meet the objective requirements for living comfort of residents, in this article, three kinds of elastic cushion materials, Portuguese cork board, BGL insulation sound insulation foam board, and EPP polypropylene plastic foam board, are applied to the sound insulation of a light frame wood floor structure of the same bedroom and compared to the ordinary floor. This study uses the transfer function method and transient excitation method to measure the sound insulation, damping ratio, and elastic modulus of materials, as well as the sound insulation of the floor under… More
  •   Views:1308       Downloads:1072       Cited by:1        Download PDF

  • Feasibility Study on Fabrication of Geopolymer Bricks by Wasted Grinding Wheel at Room Temperature
  • Abstract In this study, the feasibility of producing eco-friendly bricks by using geopolymer technology and a waste grinding wheel (WGW) from the grinding wheel industries was investigated. Nowadays, in order to meet industrial needs, for instance, in Taiwan, approximately 500,000 grinding wheels are used annually. That is, a large number of “waste” grinding wheels are produced. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted on the use of WGWs as raw materials in geopolymer applications. The use of geopolymer technology to form bricks can avoid the utilization of clay and cement and even prevent the use of a high-temperature process in kilns. Moreover,… More
  •   Views:1654       Downloads:1195       Cited by:1        Download PDF

  • Effects of Recycled Aggregate Content on Pervious Concrete Performance
  • Abstract A recycled aggregate (RA) was prepared by crushing and sieving demolished discarded concrete pavements and was subsequently tested and analyzed to determine its various physical properties. On this basis, pervious concrete (PC) mix proportions were designed. Coarse RA particles with sizes of 5–10 and 10–20 mm were selected. Concrete specimens were prepared with a water–cement ratio of 0.3, an aggregate–cement ratio of 4.5, the substitute rates of RA with 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and a single-/double-gap-graded RA mix (mass ratio of particles with sizes of 5–10 mm to particles with sizes of 10–20 mm: 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 2:3 and 3:2).… More
  •   Views:1663       Downloads:1230        Download PDF

  • Preparation and Characterization of Phenolic Prepolymer Impregnated Chinese Fir by Cyclic Increasing-Pressure Method with Green and Efficient
  • Abstract The Chinese fir wood was impregnated using a cyclic increasingpressure method (CIPM) with phenolic prepolymers as the impregnating modifier. Unmodified Chinese fir and progressive increasing-pressure method (PIPM) impregnated Chinese fir were used as reference samples and were compared and analyzed. The product’s chemical structure, internal morphology, crystal structure, and heat resistance were characterized. The transversal and longitudinal sections showed better filling effects, so that it bore greater external loading and reduced the water storage space. CIPM infused more phenolic prepolymer into the Chinese fir. Not only producing more physical filling but also forming more hydrogen bond associations and chemical bond… More
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