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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Role of Calcination Temperature on Isosorbide Production from Sorbitol Dehydration over the Catalyst Derived from Ce(IV) Sulfate

    Medta Boupan1,2, Kanyapak Prompang1, Achiraya Chompunuch1, Piwat Boonma1, Arthit Neramittagapong1,2,3,4, Somnuk Theerakulpisut5, Sutasinee Neramittagapong1,2,3,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026397
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Value-Added Chemicals and Renewable Materials from Pyrolysis of Organic Solid Wastes: Mechanism, Production, Upgrading, and Application)
    Abstract Isosorbide is a multi-purpose chemical that can be produced from renewable resources. Specifically, it has been investigated as a replacement for toxic bisphenol A (BPA) in the production of polycarbonate (PC). In this study, the synthesis of isosorbide by sorbitol dehydration using a cerium-based catalyst derived from calcined cerium (IV) sulfate (300°C, 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, and 650°C) was investigated. The reaction occurred in a high-pressure reactor containing nitrogen gas. Advanced instrumental techniques were applied to analyze the characteristics of the calcined catalyst. The results showed that the calcined catalysts demonstrated different crystalline structures and sulfate species at different temperatures. However,… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    A Review of Graphene Oxide Crosslinking as Enhanced Corrosion Shield Application

    Nurul Anis Athirah Ab Aziz*, Chin Wei Lai*, Boon Hoong Ong
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025899
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Carbon-Based Nanomaterials from Renewable Materials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
    Abstract Nowadays, corrosion is not only undesirable, but it also has a significant influence on the industrial sectors and technical innovations that have demand for metals. The global economic damage is expected to reach $2.5 trillion, equivalent to more than 3.4% of the world’s GDP in 2013. It is linked with significant financial harm, manufacturing pollution, and safety issues. An electrochemical process primarily induces metal corrosion at the metalelectrolyte interface region, caused by steel oxidation and the reduction of oxygen, protons, and water. Therefore, organic and epoxy coatings can be applied as protective coatings. Additionally, it can prevent metal corrosion in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of Recycling Waste Glass as Fine Aggregate on the Concrete Properties

    Rafal A. Hadi1,*, Suhad M. Abd2, Hadee Mohammed Najm3, Shaker Qaidi4,5,*, Moutaz Mustafa A. Eldirderi6, Khaled Mohamed Khedher7,8
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025558
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Potential Materials Towards Sustainable Construction)
    Abstract Recent years have witnessed an increase in the quantity of waste glass (WG) across the globe. Replacing the fine aggregate with WG is one of the steps toward preserving the natural resources of the environment and creating low-cost concrete. The present study is concerned with replacing fine aggregates with glass powder (GP) at (0%, 15%, 30%, and 50%). It has studied the fresh and hardened properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, hardened density, and slump) for all the mentioned percent replacements. The findings have shown that all mixtures containing GP gave acceptable slump results within the design limits (2–5 cm) according… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Adsorption of Pb(II) Using Silica Gel Synthesized from Chemical Bottle Waste: Optimization Using Box-Behnken Design

    Yatim Lailun Ni’mah*, Nabila Eka Yuningsih, Suprapto Suprapto
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025431
    Abstract The adsorption of Pb(II) on silica gel synthesized from chemical glass bottle waste has been studied. The effect of independent variables (adsorbent dose, initial concentration of Pb(II), contact time, and pH) on the Pb(II) removal from water was evaluated and optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Under optimized conditions (adsorbent dose: 20 mg; contact time: 30 min; initial Pb(II) concentration: 120 mg. L−1 ; and pH: 8), the removal of Pb(II) was 99.77%. The adsorption equilibrium data obtained from the batch experiment were investigated using different isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the experimental data. This shows that… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Process Characterization of the Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil to Biodiesel Using Design of Experiments and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Tobias Drieschner1,2,*, Andreas Kandelbauer1, Bernd Hitzmann2, Karsten Rebner1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.024429
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Renewable and Sustainable Materials for Carbon Neutrality)
    Abstract For optimization of production processes and product quality, often knowledge of the factors influencing the process outcome is compulsory. Thus, process analytical technology (PAT) that allows deeper insight into the process and results in a mathematical description of the process behavior as a simple function based on the most important process factors can help to achieve higher production efficiency and quality. The present study aims at characterizing a well-known industrial process, the transesterification reaction of rapeseed oil with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for usage as biodiesel in a continuous micro reactor set-up. To this end, a… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Research Progress on Structure and Bioactivity of Longan Polysaccharide

    Xiaolong Ji1,#, Shuli Zhang1,#, Xueyuan Jin2, Xin Yuan1, Siqi Zhang1, Xudan Guo3,*, Fengcheng Shi4,*, Yanqi Liu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025844
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Application of Biomass-Based Materials in Food Industry)
    Abstract Longan originates from southern China and has high nutritional and health value. Recent phytochemistry and pharmacology studies have shown that polysaccharides are a main bioactive component of longan. Longan polysaccharides possess antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, and other bioactivities. Hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and ultrasonic extraction are generally used to extract water-soluble longan polysaccharides. However, the relationship between the structure and bioactivity of longan polysaccharides remains unclear, requiring further investigation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the current literature focusing on the extraction, purification, structural characterization, and biological activity of longan polysaccharides. We believe that this review would provide… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hydrolysable Chestnut Tannin Extract Chemical Complexity in Its Reactions for Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU) Foams

    Elham Azadeh1, Antonio Pizzi1,2,*, Christine Gerardin-Charbonnier1,*, Philippe Gerardin1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027651
    Abstract Non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams from a commercial hydrolysable tannin extract, chestnut wood tannin extract, have been prepared to determine what chemical species and products are taking part in the reactions involved. This method is based on two main steps: the reaction with dimethyl carbonate and the formation of urethane bonds by further reaction of the carbonated tannin with a diamine-like hexamethylene diamine. The hydroxyl groups on the tannin polyphenols and on the carbohydrates intimately linked with it and part of a hydrolysable tannin are the groups involved in these reactions. The carbohydrate skeleton of the hydrolysable tannin is also able… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Expansive Soil Stabilization by Bagasse Ash in Partial Replacement of Cement

    Waleed Awadalseed1, Honghua Zhao1, Hemei Sun2, Ming Huang3, Cong Liu4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025100
    Abstract This study examined the effects of using bagasse ash in replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in the treatment of expansive soils. The study concentrated on the compaction characteristics, volume change, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, microstructure, California bearing ratio (CBR) value, and shear wave velocity of expansive soils treated with cement. Different bagasse ash replacement ratios were used to create soil samples. At varying curing times of 7, 14, and 28 days, standard compaction tests, unconfined compressive strength tests, CBR tests, Brazilian split tensile testing, and bender element (BE) tests were carried out. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation and Performance of Pueraria lobata Root Powder/Polylactic Acid Composite Films

    Shuang Zhao1, Shenglan Chen2, Shuan Ren1, Gang Li3, Ke Song1,4, Jie Guo1,4, Shima Liu1,4, Jian He1,4, Xianwu Zhou1,4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026066
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Polylactide Based Biopolymeric Systems)
    Abstract Petroleum-based materials, such as plastic, are characterized by adverse environmental pollution; as a result, researchers have sought alternative degradable plastics that are environmentally friendly, such as polylactic acid (PLA). PLA has shown great potential to replace petroleum-based plastics. In this study, seven different samples of unmodified Pueraria lobata root powder (PRP) with different contents (i.e., 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 wt%) and three different modified PRPs (i.e., treated with NaOH, NaOH-KH-550, and Formic) were used to reinforce polylactic acid (PLA) via solution casting process. These prepared PRP/PLA composite films were characterized using SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectra analysis,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Study on Bamboo Microfibers Isolated by Steam Explosion and Their Comprehensive Properties

    Qiushi Li1,2,#, Ronggang Luo1,2,#, Yu Chen3, Jinhui Xiong3, Bei Qiao1, Xijuan Chai1,2, Linkun Xie1,2, Juan Wang3, Lianpeng Zhang1,2,*, Siqun Wang4, Guanben Du1,2, Kaimeng Xu1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026184
    Abstract To overcome the shortage of wood resources as well as to develop novel natural fibers materials, the Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (CQ) and Qiongzhuea tumidinoda (QT) planted in Southwest China were effectively isolated by the steam explosion (SE). The fine and uniform bamboo microfibers derived from CQ and QT were obtained, and their smallest average widths were 12.62 μm and 16.05 μm, respectively. The effects of steam explosion on the micro-morphology, chemical composition, thermal stability, crystallinity, surface wettability, and mechanical properties of bamboo microfibers were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that the relative content of cellulose in bamboo microfibers increased but the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study of Thermal, Phase Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Poly(L-lactide)-b-Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Poly(L-lactide)/Poly(ethylene glycol) Blend Bioplastics

    Yodthong Baimark*, Theeraphol Phromsopha
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025400
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Polylactide Based Biopolymeric Systems)
    Abstract A poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide)(PLLA-PEG-PLLA) block copolymer has great potential for use as a flexible bioplastic. Highly flexible bioplastics are required for flexible packaging applications. In this work, a PEG was incorporated into block copolymer as a plasticizer by solvent casting. PLLA-PEG-PLLA/ PEG blends with different blend ratios were prepared, and the plasticizing effect and miscibility of PEG in block copolymer were intensively investigated compared to PLLA/PEG blends. The results indicated that the PEG was an effective plasticizer for the block copolymer. The blending of PEG decreased glass-transition temperature and accelerated the crystallization of both the PLLA and PLLA-PEG-PLLA matrices. The PEG… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of Hydrodynamic Pore Pressure Damage on the Performance of Hot-Mixed Renewable Asphalt Mixture

    Guodong Zeng1, Chao Li1,*, Yang Fang1, Hongming Huang1,2, Hao Li1,3, Yishen Xu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025871
    Abstract For evaluating the water stability of hot-mixed renewable asphalt mixture (HRM), the traditional methods are all tested under still water conditions. Except for damage in still water conditions, the hydrodynamic pore pressure generated by the tire driving on the surface water has a great impact. Thus, the RAP contents of the HRMs were designed at 0%, 30%, 45% and 60% with AC-25 gradation. Then, the self-designed evaluation methods of water stability and dynamic modulus were studied. Finally, the mechanism of the influence of hydrodynamic pore pressure damage on HRMs was studied. The results show that the water stability of HRM… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation and Characterization of Thermoplastic Starch from Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) by Extrusion Method

    Muhammad Ghozali1,2, Yenny Meliana2, Widya Fatriasari3, Petar Antov4, Mochamad Chalid1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026060
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Eco-friendly Wood-Based Composites: Design, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications)
    Abstract Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch is considered an important renewable, biodegradable, and eco-friendly polymer, which is derived from agricultural by-products and residues, with great potential for the development of biocomposite materials. This research was aimed at investigating the development of TPS biocomposites from A. pinnata palm starch using an extrusion process. Palm starch, glycerol, and stearic acid were extruded in a twin-screw extruder. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of TPS showed that the starch granules were damaged and gelatinized in the extrusion process. The density of TPS was 1.3695 g/mL, lower than that of palm starch, and the addition of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluation of Novel Chitosan Based Composites Coating on Wettability for Pure Titanium Implants

    Qahtan A. Hamad1, Hanaa A. Al-Kaisy1, Mohanad N. Al-Shroofy1, Noor K. Faheed2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.023213
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Composite/Hybrid Structures and Components)
    Abstract This work aims to prepare chitosan (CS)-based coated layers, CS (10 wt% nanosilver/90 wt% CS, 10 wt% biotin/90 wt% CS, and 5 wt% nanosilver–5 wt% biotin)/90 wt% CS coatings are prepared, onto pure Ti substrate. The surface morphology of the novel CS composite coating was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and wettability test. Results show that the addition of (biotin, nanosilver) 5 Vol.% improves the properties of composite materials. Using different particles’ scale size aid in improving the combinations in the alginate, producing a dual effect on film properties. Coating… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Polypropylene Fiber on the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Loess with Different Water Content

    Wankui Ni1, Jiaxin Zhong1,2, Haiman Wang1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023805
    Abstract Fiber-reinforced soils have been of great interest to experimenters for building foundations’strength performance, time, and economy. This paper investigates the effects of water content and polypropylene fiber dosage and length on loess’s unconfined compressive strength (UCS) according to the central composite response surface design test procedure. The water content is 11%–25%, the mass ratio of fiber to soil is 0.1%–0.9%, and the fiber length ranges from 6–18 mm. The response surface method (RSM) developed full quadratic models of different variables with response values. After analysis of variance (ANOVA), the mathematical model developed in this study was statistically significant (p ≤… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    N-Doped rGO-Like Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shell: Structure and Specific Capacitance

    Imam Khambali1,2,*, Budhi Priyanto1,2, Retno Asih1, Malik Anjelh Baqiya1, Muhammad Mahyiddin Ramli3, Nurul Huda Osman4, Sarayut Tunmee5, Hideki Nakajima5, Triwikantoro1, Mochamad Zainuri1, Darminto1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025026
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Green Materials for Supercapacitors)
    Abstract An rGO−like carbon compound has been synthesized from biomass, i.e., old coconut shell, by a carbonization process followed by heating at 400°C for 5 h. The nitrogen doping was achieved by adding the urea (CH4N2O) and stirring at 70°C for 14 h. The morphology and structure of the rGO-like carbon were investigated by electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of C-N functional groups was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared and synchrotron X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, while the particle and the specific capacitance were measured by particle sizer and cyclic voltammetry. The highest specific capacitance of 72.78 F/g is achieved by… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Thermomechanical Energy Converters for Harvesting Thermal Energy: A Review

    Oleg P. Dimitriev*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.024772
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Insights on Renewable Materials for Energy Related Applications)
    Abstract Thermal energy, i.e., the electromagnetic energy in the infrared range that originates from the direct solar radiation, outgoing terrestrial radiation, waste heat from combustion of fuels, heat-emitting electrical devices, decay of radioactive isotopes, organic putrefaction and fermentation, human body heat, and so on, constitutes a huge energy flux circulating on the earth surface. However, most energy converters designed for the conversion of electromagnetic energy into electricity, such as photovoltaic cells, are mainly focused on using a narrow part of the solar energy lying in the visible spectrum, while thermomechanical engines that are fueled by heat in the broad energy range… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Durability of Green Concrete in Severe Environment

    Yonggan Yang1,2,3,4, Zihao Kang1, Binggen Zhan1,3,*, Peng Gao1,3,*, Qijun Yu1, Yanlai Xiong4, Jingfeng Wang1,3, Yunsheng Zhang5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025059
    Abstract In this paper, the effects of different mineral admixtures and sulfate solution types on the appearance, mass change rate, relative dynamic elastic modulus, and corrosion resistance coefficient of concrete were systematically studied. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Computed Tomography (X-CT) were used to explore and analyze the changes in the microstructure and the corrosion products of concrete in the sulfate solution. The results show that the existence of magnesium ions accelerates concrete deterioration. There is a critical dosage of fly ash for magnesium sulfate resistance of concrete. The magnesium sulfate resistance of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fly Ash and Slag as Partial Replacement of Cement for the Synthesis of Low Carbon Cementitious Materials

    Yafei Hu1,2, Keqing Li1,2, Lujing Zheng3, Bin Han1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025129
    Abstract Tailings known as solid waste are generated by the mining industry. The development of tailings as wet shotcrete aggregates has significant economic and environmental benefits. The fine particle size of the tailings results in a large consumption of traditional cement as a cementitious material and insignificant improvement in strength. Therefore, a composite cementitious system of cement and solid waste resources (fly ash and slag powder) is explored for this study. In this paper, the response surface methodology (RSM) is used to optimize the experimental design and a multivariate nonlinear response model with cement, fly ash and slag powder contents as… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mechanical and Permeability Analysis and Optimization of Recycled Aggregate Pervious Concrete Based on Response Surface Method

    Fan Li1,#, Xin Cai2,#, Yanan Zhang1,*, Xingwen Guo2,*, Minmin Jiang3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.024380
    Abstract In this paper, the effects of different influencing factors and factor interaction on the compressive strength and permeability of recycled aggregate pervious concrete (RAPC) were studied based on the response surface method (RSM). By selecting the maximum aggregate size, water cement ratio and target porosity as design variables, combined with laboratory tests and numerical analysis, the influences of three factors on the compressive strength and permeability coefficient of RAPC were revealed. The regression equation of compressive strength and permeability coefficient of recycled aggregate pervious concrete were established based on RSM, and the response surface model was optimized to determine the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fabricating Cationic Lignin Hydrogels for Dye Adsorption

    Chao Wang, Xuezhen Feng, Wanbing Li, Shibin Shang*, Haibo Zhang*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.024521
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Lignocellulosic Bionanomaterials)
    Abstract Due to the low content of adsorption-active groups in lignin, its application in the field of adsorption is limited. Herein, we first prepared cationic kraft lignin acrylate, from which a cationic lignin (CKLA) hydrogel was further prepared by cationic kraft lignin acrylate, acrylamide, and N, N’-methylenebisacrylamide. The morphology, compression properties and swelling properties of CKLA hydrogels were investigated. The prepared CKLA hydrogel was applied as an adsorbent for Congo red. The effect of CKLA hydrogel dosages, initial concentration of Congo red, and pH on adsorption efficiency was investigated. The maximum Congo red removal efficiency was obtained at the initial concentration… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Mode and Vibration Comfort Analysis of High-Rise Glulam Building Floor Structure

    Yuhang He, Rongzhuo Zhang, Yifan Zhang, Zheng Wang*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025867
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Composite Materials and Structures-2021)
    Abstract In order to better meet the objective requirements of the use safety of the high-rise glulam building floor structure and the living comfort of the residents, the transient excitation, environmental excitation and frequency spectrum identification methods were used to carry out experimental modal test in-site on the three rooms numbered A, B and C of the same glulam structural building. The three rooms have different functions, different floor sizes and different floor supporting structures. The research results have shown that the first-order bending frequency of the floor structure of Room A is 27.50 Hz, the transverse second-order bending frequency is… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analytical Investigation into the Rotational Performance of Glulam Bolted Beam-Column Connections under Coupled Bending Moment and Shear Force

    Xiaofeng Zhang1, Lisheng Luo2,*, Youfu Sun1, Xinyue Cui2, Yongqiang Zhang2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023651
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Considering the glulam beam-column connection form and the number of bolts, monotonic loading test and finite element analysis was carried out on 9 connection specimens in 3 groups to study the rotational performance and failure mode of the connection. The test results revealed that compared with U-shaped connectors, T-shaped connectors can effectively improve the ductility of connections, and the increase in the number of bolts can reduce the initial stiffness and ductility of connections. By theoretical analysis, formulas for calculating the initial stiffness and ultimate moment of connections were deduced. Subsequently, the moment-rotation theoretical model of connections was established based… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Green Hydrothermal Synthesis and Applications of Sorbus pohuashanensis/Aronia melanocarpa Extracts Functionalized-Au/Ag/AuAg Nanoparticles

    Jin Huang1,2,#, Jixiang Sun1,3,4,#, Kai Shao1,3,4, Yamei Lin1,3,4, Zhiguo Liu1,3,4,*, Yujie Fu1, Liqiang Mu2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.023721
    Abstract Nanoparticles (NPs) have already been widely used in catalysis, antibacterial and coating fields. Compared with the traditional toxic and harmful reducing reagents, green synthesis of NPs by using plant extracts is not only environmental-friendly and cost-effective but also conducive to the multi-level and efficient utilization of wild plant resources. In this study, the aqueous extracts from Sorbus pohuashanensis (SP) and Aronia melanocarpa (AM) fruits were used as the reducing and protective reagents for synthesizing Au/AgNPs, with the characteristics of originality operation and high repeatability. The SP/AM fruit extracts functionalized Au/AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM),… More >