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Glycated Hemoglobin HbA1c: Permittivity Experimental Applications with Some Mathematical Concepts, Temperature and Frequency Variations

Soliman Abdalla1,2,*, Sherif Kandil2, Waleed El-Shirbeeny1, Fatma Bahabri1,3
1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Materials Science, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
3 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jeddah University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: Soliman Abdalla. Email:

Journal of Renewable Materials 2022, 10(9), 2335-2354.

Received 01 January 2022; Accepted 27 February 2022; Issue published 30 May 2022


Diabetes disorder turns smoothly to be a global epidemic disorder and the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) starts to be an efficient marker of it. The dielectric spectroscopy on different human normal- and diabetic-blood samples is used to characterize and to estimate the HbA1c concentration. “dc-” and ac-measurement of the complex conductivity in the temperature range from 280 K up to 320 K, and in the frequency range from one Hz up to 32 MHz have been performed. The thermal activation energy, ΔEσ, of dc-electric conductivity lies in the range 95 meV < ΔEσ < 115 meV; while the thermal activation energy, ΔEτ, of RBCs relaxation time is about ΔEτ = 140 meV. The experimental data have been modeled by a physical-model and good fittings have been found between calculated and experimental values. The effective number of charges, nG, T, is estimated after Cole and Cole curves. One has found that nG, T increases with both temperature, T, and with the glycation rate GG. This increase may shed some light on an effective and possible way to treat (and to detect) diabetes disorders via eliminating the excess electric charges produced by glycation processes. The present work sheds the light on the possible combination of focused ultrasound with magnetic resonance imaging to study the dielectric-thermal variations of glycated-RBCs, which can lead to very precise and non-invasive monitoring of glycation concentration in vivo and in vitro via magnetic resonance-thermometry.


Glycated-hemoglobin rate; thermal characterization; red blood cells RBCs; relaxation of RBCs; dielectric constant; mathematical model

Cite This Article

Abdalla, S., Kandil, S., El-Shirbeeny, W., Bahabri, F. (2022). Glycated Hemoglobin HbA1c: Permittivity Experimental Applications with Some Mathematical Concepts, Temperature and Frequency Variations. Journal of Renewable Materials, 10(9), 2335–2354.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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