Table of Content

Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials

Submission Deadline: 01 March 2022 (closed)

Guest Editors

Antonios N. Papadopoulos, Professor, International Hellenic University, Greek.
Antonios N. Papadopoulos is a specialist in Wood Science, Chemistry and Technology. He is Professor and Head of the Department of Forestry and Natural Environment at the International Hellenic University. He is an M.Sc and Ph.D holder, both from University of North Wales, Bangor. His M.Sc thesis focused on wood composites and his Ph.D thesis on chemical and thermal modification of wood. His main areas of research interests include: chemical and thermal modification of wood, nanotechnology and wood science, composites, wood based panels and adhesives. He has published more than 200 peer reviewed papers, books, and book chapters. He is on various Editorial Boards of journals in the field of wood science and technology.

Summary

Wood, a versatile material, has been used for centuries for many reasons due to its fibrous nature. It varies in color and density and is considered a primary raw material in buildings due to its high strength in combination with its low weight and some durability. It is, therefore, a raw material that can be used in indoor applications and, if treated efficiently, in outdoor application as well. However, two properties restrict its much wider use: dimensional changes when subjected to fluctuating humidity and susceptibility to biodegradation by microorganisms. These drawbacks are mainly due to the cell wall main polymers and, in particular, due to their high abundance of hydroxyl groups. Wood may be modified chemically or thermally, so that selected properties are enhanced in a more or less permanent fashion. Another option to improve the hygroscopicity and the biological durability of both solid wood and wood-based panels is to exploit the solutions that nanotechnology can offer. Employing nanotechnology on wood can result in a next generation of products having hyper-performance and superior service ability when used in severe environments, since it is well known that the cell wall of wood exhibits porosity of molecular scale dimensions due to the partial filling of space between the cellulose microfibrils by lignin, hemicelluloses and extractives. The small size nanoparticles of such nanotechnology compounds can deeply penetrate into the wood, effectively alter its surface chemistry, and result in a high protection against moisture and decay. In addition, the use of lignocellulosic materials for the production of advanced wood composites is an innovative avenue for research. Their growing relevance in the modern industry and science results from the main global trends in industrial development, but also from environmental thinking and nature protection activities, including energy-saving solutions and clean technologies. It must be clearly pointed out that one cannot speak about wood composites without speaking in depth of the polymer binders and adhesives used to hold them together. The history of wood composites themselves is inextricably intertwined with the history and the development of the polymer binders that hold them together and their manufacture. In fact, not only has there been continuous development of new or improved binders that has allowed the development of wood composites but it is the continual renewal, new discovery, and upgrading of such binders that has allowed and allows progress in wood composites. Progress in this fascinating field of primary economic importance has been accelerating, and the number of new ideas, approaches, and new proposed binder systems is continuously increasing, providing a glimpse of an exciting and interesting research future.

 

This Special Issue, Advanced wood composites from renewable materials, seeks high-quality works and topics (not only those) focusing on the latest approaches to the protection of wood and wood composites with chemical or thermal modification technologies, the application of nanomaterials to wood science and the development of new techniques and technologies for production of lignocellulosic materials with enhanced properties and performance. Topics of interest also include mechanical and structural properties of composites as well as their constituent materials; experimental and theoretical studies relating to composites; manipulation of properties through manufacturing and processing; modeling and simulations; microscopic to macroscopic behavior; and performance verification techniques.

 

I deeply believe the collection will become an origin of new ideas for the protection, design, research, and use of sustainable and renewable materials in the fascinating area of wood composites. Laboratories worldwide do innovative research and new challenges, approaches and ideas are continuously increasing letting mirror an exciting and interesting research future.


Keywords

Wood composites, wood, chemical and thermal modification, nanotechnology, lignocellulosic materials, adhesives, sustainable and renewable materials.

Published Papers


  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analytical Investigation into the Rotational Performance of Glulam Bolted Beam-Column Connections under Coupled Bending Moment and Shear Force

    Xiaofeng Zhang, Lisheng Luo, Youfu Sun, Xinyue Cui, Yongqiang Zhang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 2033-2054, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023651
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Considering the glulam beam-column connection form and the number of bolts, monotonic loading test and finite element analysis was carried out on 9 connection specimens in 3 groups to study the rotational performance and failure mode of the connection. The test results revealed that compared with U-shaped connectors, T-shaped connectors can effectively improve the ductility of connections, and the increase in the number of bolts can reduce the initial stiffness and ductility of connections. By theoretical analysis, formulas for calculating the initial stiffness and ultimate moment of connections were deduced. Subsequently, the moment-rotation theoretical model of connections was established based… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Analytical Investigation into the Rotational Performance of Glulam Bolted Beam-Column Connections under Coupled Bending Moment and Shear Force

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Stiffness and Shear Stress Distribution of Glulam Beams in Elastic-Plastic Stage: Theory, Experiments and Numerical Modelling

    Lisheng Luo, Xinran Xie, Yongqiang Zhang, Xiaofeng Zhang, Xinyue Cui
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 791-809, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022539
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Traditional methods focus on the ultimate bending moment of glulam beams and the fracture failure of materials with defects, which usually depends on empirical parameters. There is no systematic theoretical method to predict the stiffness and shear distribution of glulam beams in elastic-plastic stage, and consequently, the failure of such glulam beams cannot be predicted effectively. To address these issues, an analytical method considering material nonlinearity was proposed for glulam beams, and the calculating equations of deflection and shear stress distribution for different failure modes were established. The proposed method was verified by experiments and numerical models under the corresponding… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Stiffness and Shear Stress Distribution of Glulam Beams in Elastic-Plastic Stage: Theory, Experiments and Numerical Modelling

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modification of Wood by Tannin-Furfuryl Alcohol Resins–Effect on Dimensional Stability, Mechanical Properties and Decay Durability

    Mahdi Mubarok, Christine Gérardin-Charbonnier, Elham Azadeh, Firmin Obounou Akong, Stéphane Dumarçay, Antonio Pizzi, Philippe Gérardin
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 505-521, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.024872
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Furfurylation is a well-known wood modification technology. This paper studied the effect of tannin addition on the wood furfurylation. Three kinds of dicarboxylic acids, adipic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid, as well as glyoxal as a comparing agent, were used to catalyse the polymerisation of furanic or tannin-furanic solutions during wood modification. Impregnation of furanic or tannin-furanic solution at a certain concentration into the wood followed with curing at 103°C for a specific duration was performed for the wood modification. Different properties of the modified woods like dimensional stability, resistance of treatment to leaching, mechanical properties, decay durability against… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Measurement and Analysis of Three-Dimensional Surface Topography of Sawn Timber Based on Scanning Probe Method

    Yuhang He, Rongzhuo Zhang, Sarah Mohrmann, Zheng Wang, Jiujin Fang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.12, pp. 3303-3311, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020681
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract In order to explore the characteristics of the three-dimensional surface morphology of sawn timber, a threedimensional wood surface morphology tester based on the scanning probe method and the principle of atomic force microscope was used to test the three-dimensional surface morphology of three kinds of sawn timber and calculate its surface roughness. This study also analyzed the reasonable plan for the value of wood surface roughness and the advantages of the three-dimensional shape tester, as well as the influence of tree species, three sections, air-dry density and other factors on the surface roughness of the specimen after mechanical processing. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Effect of Printing Parameters and Wood Surface Preparation on the Adhesion of Directly 3D-Printed PLA on Wood

    Daša Krapež Tomec, Angela Balzano, Jure Žigon, Milan Šernek, Mirko Kariž
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1787-1796, 2022, DOI: 10.32604/jrm.2022.019760
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract As additive manufacturing technologies advance, new opportunities are opening up for their application in the furniture industry. Wood remains one of the leading raw materials in the furniture industry; therefore, possible options for combining it with 3D printing have been researched. The bonding of 3D-printed polymer parts with wood or 3D printing with wood-plastic composites is already known, but in our research we attempted to directly 3D print polylactic acid (PLA) on wood surfaces. The effect of printing parameters, as well as the surface preparation of wood on the shear strength of the bond between wood and on-printed material was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on the Fire Behavior of Sandwich Wall Panels with GFRP Skins and a Wood-Web Core

    Guangjun Sun, Chuting Wang, Lu Wang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1537-1553, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018598
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract To investigate the temperature field and residual bearing capacity of the sandwich wall panels with GFRP skins and a wood-web core under a fire, three sandwich walls were tested. One of them was used for static load test and the other two for the one-side fire tests. Besides, temperature probe points were set on the sandwich walls to obtain the temperature distribution. Meanwhile, the model of the sandwich wall was established in the finite element software by the method of core material stiffness equivalent. The temperature distribution and performance reduction of materials were also considered. The residual bearing capacity of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Investigation on the Visible Characteristics of Four Caesalpiniaceae Wood Species in Gabon

    Zhaoyang Yu, Jinbo Hu, Yuan Liu, Shanshan Chang, Ting Li, Gonggang Liu, Qiongtao Huang, Jianying Yuan
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1365-1379, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018255
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Color, whiteness and glossiness of four caesalpiniaceae wood species were characterized by quantitative measurements and image analysis, i.e., which were respectively Berlinia bracteosa Benth., Monopetalanthus heitzii Pellegr., Distemonanthus benthamianus and Erythrophleum ivorense A. Chev. The color of four wood species was evaluated to be consistent by the CIELab and CIE1931 color system. The boards of B. bracteosa, M. heitzii and E. ivorense was divided into dark color. The wood color of B. bracteosa had the highest red to green hue, while the wood appearance of D. benthamianus had the brightest and yellowest color within the four wood species. The whiteness… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    An Investigation on the Visible Characteristics of Four Caesalpiniaceae Wood Species in Gabon

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of Crack Expansion and Morphology of Cross-Laminated Timber Planar Shear Test

    Yujie Huang, Yifan Zhang, Zheng Wang, Assima Dauletbe, Yao Lu, Zhaoyu Shen
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 849-870, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018515
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract To describe the dynamic cracking process of the CLT vertical layer, the correlation between a load-displacement curve, specimen cracking, and planar shear failure mechanism of the CLT were explored. A three-point bending test and an improved planar shear test are used to evaluate the shear performance of the CLT. In this study, the load-displacement curve is recorded, the experimental part is synchronized with the video, the dynamic process of cracking of the vertical layer is observed and analyzed throughout the test. From the load-displacement curve, the image characteristics of the initial cracking and the sudden increase of the cracking of… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Analysis of Crack Expansion and Morphology of Cross-Laminated Timber Planar Shear Test

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    High Permeability of Boron along the Transverse Direction of Wood under High-Voltage Electrostatic Field (HVEF) Treatment

    Daiyuan Zhang, Qian He, Baocong Du, Junbao Yu, Xudong Zhu, Dingyi Yang, Shengcai Li, Tianyi Zhan, Liming Shen, Zhiqiang Wang, Xiaoning Lu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 721-734, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016793
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Permeability of wood preservative is one of the most significant factors for protection of wood construction. Anisotropic flow permeability was involved in different directions of wood with higher flow resistance in the transverse and lower longitudinal directions. In this study, boron acid solution was brushed onto the tangential section of air-dried wood cubes and boron penetration along wood transverse direction was investigated under free diffusion, vacuum and HVEF treatments. Multi-scale boron distribution, FTIR measurement, leaching property, mechanical properties and fungistatic characteristic were investigated for free diffusion, vacuum and HVEF treated samples respectively. The results revealed that boron exhibited high permeability… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Preparation of Lignin-Containing Nanocellulose from Bamboo Parenchyma

    Wenli Gu, Shiyi Zeng, Assima Dauletbek, Bin Xu, Xinzhou Wang, Man Yuan, Yanni Gu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 385-399, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016457
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Bamboo vascular bundle fiber and parenchyma (BP) are separated by high-temperature treatment with saturated steam. Bamboo vascular bundle fiber is widely used in the market, but how to develop and utilize parenchyma tissue is a difficult problem. The sulfated cellulose nanofibers (ANFs) were obtained by sulfating BP with a deep eutectic solvent (DES), which provided a theoretical basis for the value-added utilization of BP. Using DES as the reaction medium and reagent, the BP was grafted with a sulfonic acid group to form a gel substance in water, ANFs and nanocellulose gel were obtained by ultrasonic cell crusher. The highest… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Study on Preparation of Lignin-Containing Nanocellulose from Bamboo Parenchyma

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    CLT Fabricated with Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis Wood from Fast-Growth Forest Plantations: Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Freddy Muñoz, Carolina Tenorio, Róger Moya, Angel Navarro-Mora
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 1-17, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017392
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Fabrication and use of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) using tropical woods is still limited at present. Therefore objective of the present study aims to determine the possibility of using CLT panels of 3 and 5 layers, fabricated with Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea wood using adhesive of isocyanate polymer emulsion system catalyzed with polymeric isocyanate. Delamination, water absorption, density, flexure test, compression and glue-line shear were evaluated using ANSI/APA PRG320-2012 ASTM D198 and ASTM D4761 standard. The results showed that CLT panels of T. grandis presented higher values of density, less water absorption and lower delamination, with no evident differences… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Physical and Mechanical Properties of Eco-Friendly Composites Made from Wood Dust and Recycled Polystyrene

    Dafni Foti, Eleni E. Voulgaridou, Sotirios Karastergiou, Hamid R. Taghiyari, Antonios N. Papadopoulos
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 75-88, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017759
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract The development of alternative wood composites based on the use of waste or recycled materials can be beneficial due to over exploitation of natural resources. Under this frame, an option for the successful utilization of waste polystyrene which avoids environmental problems that formaldehyde adhesives cause and also reduces waste disposal, is its potential application as a binder for the production of value-added environmentally friendly and low cost wood composites. Two types of panel were successfully made, consisting of wood dust and two recycled polystyrene contents, namely, 15% and 30%. Both physical properties, water absorption and thickness swelling, and mechanical properties,… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Physical and Mechanical Properties of Eco-Friendly Composites Made from Wood Dust and Recycled Polystyrene

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intratree Variation in Viscoelastic Properties of Cell Walls of Masson Pine (Pinus Massoniana Lamb)

    Shaoxiang Cai, Yuliang Guo, Yanjun Li
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 119-133, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016260
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract In this study, Pinus massoniana Lamb at different heights, across the annual rings, and between earlywood and latewood was measured by X-ray diffraction and the chemical composition was analyzed by chemical treatment. Results indicated that the microfibril angle (MFA) decreased and the chemical composition changed little with the increase in height from 1 m to 9 m. In the radial direction, the MFA decreased and the chemical composition changed little with an increase in annual rings. The cellulose content of latewood was higher than that of earlywood. The viscoelastic changes of wood cell walls at different heights, across the annual rings by… More >

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