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Optimum Calcination Condition of Waste Stabilized Adobe for Alkali Activated High Volume Adobe-Slag Binder Cured at Room Temperature

Brya Aldawoodi1,*, Salaheddin Sabri1, Abdulmounem Alchekh Wis2

1 Department of Civil Engineering, Cyprus International University, Haspolat, North Cyprus, via Mersin 10, Turkey
2 Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, 41380, Turkey

* Corresponding Author: Brya Aldawoodi. Email:

Journal of Renewable Materials 2022, 10(5), 1269-1285.


This study aims to determine the most convenient calcination temperature and calcination duration of waste-stabilized Adobe (AB) to produce a new alkali-activated binder. Waste-stabilized Adobe mainly consists of soil, CaCO3 as a stabilizer, and straw (for strengthening). The availability of raw materials for making Adobe presents the waste-stabilized Adobe as a potential product for a new alkali-activated binder. Waste-stabilized Adobe collected from an abandoned damaged building in the village of Inonu in Northern Cyprus, ground and calcined at the following temperatures: 450, 550, 650, 750, 850, and 950°C. The calcination at each temperature was held for different durations 1, 3, 5, and 7 h. Raw and calcined waste stabilized Adobe structures were investigated using XRF, TGA-DTA, XRD, FTIR, and SEM. Considering technical and environmental views related to energy consumption, waste stabilized Adobe calcined at 750°C for 1 h presented the most promising results regarding the production of a new precursor for alkali-activated binder. This study also presents the effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) usage on the fresh and hardened properties of optimum calcined AB-based alkali-activated pastes cured at room temperature. GGBFS was used to partially replace AB to form a binary composite raw material system and seven experimental groups were designed according to replacement levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% (by mass). Alkali-activated high volume waste-stabilized Adobe-slag pastes prepared using Na2SiO3-to-NaOH ratio of 2 and 12 M concentration of Sodium Hydroxide. The fresh property as flowability and the hardened property as the compressive strength of the alkali-activated pastes with different GGBFS contents were investigated. The results indicated that the incorporation of GGBFS increased the flowability of fresh alkali-activated pastes. A 28-day compressive strength of 43.75 MPa can be obtained by a 30% replacement level of GGBFS.


Cite This Article

Aldawoodi, B., Sabri, S., Wis, A. A. (2022). Optimum Calcination Condition of Waste Stabilized Adobe for Alkali Activated High Volume Adobe-Slag Binder Cured at Room Temperature. Journal of Renewable Materials, 10(5), 1269–1285.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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