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Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

Submission Deadline: 30 September 2021 (closed)

Guest Editors

Xin Wang, Associate Professor, University of Science and Technology of China, China.
Dr. Xin Wang is an associate professor in the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). He obtained his PhD in Safety Science and Engineering from the USTC in 2013. His research interests focus on synthesis of bio-based halogen-free flame retardants and preparation of novel nanomaterials, and their use in flame retardant polymeric composites. Up to now, he has been authored or co-authored more than 130 SCI-indexed papers in the peer-reviewed international journals (including 6 ESI highly-cited papers, total citations 6040, H index = 45), 5 book chapters and 1 monograph in this field.

Summary

The extensive utilization of polymeric materials in our daily life is driven by their superior comprehensive properties. However, polymeric materials are apt to be ignited with fast flame spread rate as well as the release of massive toxic gases and smoke during combustion. As a consequence, the relatively high fire hazards of polymeric materials account for a large number of property loss and casualties in polymer-related fire accidents every year worldwide. Thus, fire safety requirements on polymeric materials are currently attracting more and more attention in terms of difficulty of ignition, low heat release rate and low production of toxic gases and smoke. Over the past few decades, flame retardant technology from bio-based resources has gained increasing interests owing to increasing awareness on environmental protection and sustainable development. Bio-based halogen-free flame retardant is a hot research area nowadays as it is safe, non-toxic and sustainable flame retardant. This special issue mainly focuses on the latest advances in bio-based halogen-free flame retardant polymeric materials application. The scope of interests includes but is not limited to the following topics:

 

(1) Flame retardant additives derived from bio-based resources;

(2) Bio-based intrinsically flame retardant polymeric materials;

(3) Flame retardancy of bio-based or renewable polymer composites;

(4) Flame retardant polymer/natural fibers composites;

(5) Thermal degradation of bio-based or renewable polymer composites;

(6) Smoke suppression of bio-based or renewable polymer composites.


Keywords

Bio-based resources; Polymeric materials; Flame retardant; Thermal degradation; Smoke suppression

Published Papers


  • Open Access

    EDITORIAL

    Bio-Based Halogen-Free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

    Xin Wang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 1627-1629, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027379
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of Beta-Cyclodextrin Functionalized Tin Phenylphosphonate on the Thermal Stability and Flame Retardancy of Epoxy Composites

    Yongming Chen, Shuai Huang, Han Zhao, Ru Yang, Yining He, Tianyu Zhao, Yunlong Zhang, Qinghong Kong, Shasha Sun, Junhao Zhang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.12, pp. 3119-3130, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019576
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract To enhance the thermal stability and flame retardancy of epoxy resin (EP), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is successfully introduced into the layered tin phenylphosphonate (SnPP), which is incorporated into EP matrix for preparing EP/β-CD@SnPP composites. The results indicate that the addition of β-CD@SnPP obviously improve the thermal stability and residual yield of EP composites at higher temperature. When the amount of β-CD@SnPP is only 4 wt%, EP/4β-CD@SnPP composites pass V-1 rating, and LOI value is up to 30.8%. Meanwhile, β- CD@SnPP effectively suppress the heat release and reduce the smoke production of EP/β-CD@SnPP composites in combustion, and More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of MMT on Flame Retardancy of PLA/IFR/LDH Composites

    Ping Zhang, Siyu Gan, Lin Chen, Hao Chen, Chunhui Jia, Yingke Fu, Ying Xiong
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.11, pp. 2937-2947, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019590
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Nano filler synergistic intumescent flame retardant (IFR) system is an effective way to improve the flame retardant properties of polymer. In this study, the effects of montmorillonite (MMT) on the flame retardant properties of polylactic acid/layered double hydroxides (PLA/LDH) and PLA/IFR/LDH were investigated. The results show that both LDH and LDH/IFR can reduce the peak heat release rate (HRR) of PLA and prolong the combustion time of PLA; When a proportionate MMT is introduced into PLA/LDH and PLA/IFR/LDH systems, respectively, MMT will not only affect the degradation process of PLA composites during combustion, but also More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Facile Synthesis of a Novel Bio-Based P-N Containing Flame Retardant for Effectively Reducing the Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin

    Meixian Li, Xin Hu, Jie Yang, Hongyu Yang, Yao Yuan
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.10, pp. 2639-2654, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019491
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract In this work, a bio-based flame retardant (Cy-HEDP) was synthesized from cytosine and HEDP through a facile salt-forming reaction and embedded into epoxy matrix to improve the flame retardancy and smoke suppression performance. The product Cy-HEDP was well characterized by FTIR, 1 H and 31P NMR and SEM tests. On the basis of the results, by adding 15 wt% Cy-HEDP, the EP15 can pass UL-94 V-0 rating, and the total smoke production (TSP) as well as total heat release (THR) can be decreased by 61.05% (from 22.61 to 8.7 m2 /m2 ) and 39.44% (from 103.19 to 62.50 More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Facile Synthesis of a Novel Bio-Based P-N Containing Flame Retardant for Effectively Reducing the Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phosphorylated Salicylic Acid as Flame Retardant in Epoxy Resins and Composites

    Lara Greiner, Philipp Kukla, Sebastian Eibl, Manfred Döring
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1931-1950, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019548
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract A novel, versatile flame retardant substructure based on phosphorylated salicylic acid (SCP) is described and used in the synthesis of new flame retardants for HexFlow® RTM6, a high-performance epoxy resin used in resin transfer molding processes as composite matrix. The starting material salicylic acid can be obtained from natural sources. SCP as reactive phosphorus chloride is converted with a novolak, a novolak containing 9, 10-dihydro-9- oxa-10-phospha-phenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) substituents or DOPO-hydroquinone to flame retardants with sufficient thermal stability and high char yield. Additionally, these flame retardants are soluble in the resin as well as react into the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Halogen-Free Flame Retarded Poly(Lactic Acid) with an Isosorbide-Derived Polyphosphonate

    Wenwen Guo, Wei Cai, Dong Wang, Junling Wang, Xiefei Zhu, Bin Fei
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1875-1888, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018823
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Fabrication of flame retardants from renewable biomass has aroused extensive interest over the past decade. This work reported a synthesis of isosorbide-derived polyphosphonate (PICPP) as an anti-flammable agent for poly (lactic acid) (PLA). The presence of PICPP notably declined the storage modulus of PLA/PICPP owing to the declined molecular weight of PLA catalyzed by the presence of PICPP. PLA and PLA/PICPP thermally degraded in one stage under either air or nitrogen atmosphere. With increasing the amount of PICPP, the onset thermal decomposition temperature of PLA/PICPP was decreased gradually, owing to the earlier decomposition of PICPP. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New DOPO-Eugenol Adduct as an Effective Flame Retardant for Epoxy Thermosets with Improved Mechanical Properties

    Daqin Zhang, Chufeng Yang, Huayang Ran, Juanli Wang, Jintao Wan, Yuhu Li, Pujun Jin, Daodao Hu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1797-1811, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018754
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract The development of efficient green flame retardants is an important way to realize more sustainable epoxy thermosets and downstream materials. In this work, a monoepoxide is synthesized through O-glycidylation of eugenol, and then reacted with DOPO (9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphophenanthrene-10-oxide) to obtain a new bio-based flame retardant, DOPO-GE. DOPO-GE is blended with a bisphenol A epoxy prepolymer exhibiting good compatibility and DDS (4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is used as the curing agent to afford epoxy thermosets. Although DOPO-GE leads to the reduced glass transition temperature of the thermosets, the storage modulus increases considerably. The DOPO-GE-modified thermosets exhibit the high thermal stability… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Vanillin-Derived, DOPO-Contained Bisphenol as a Reactive Flame Retardant for High-Performance Epoxy Thermosets

    Li Wang, Rongbai Tong, Juanli Wang, Jintao Wan, Yuhu Li, Pujun Jin, Daodao Hu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1349-1364, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019372
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Quest for bio-based halogen-free green flame retardant has attracted many concerns in recent years. Herein a reactive functional flame retardant containing phosphorus VDP is synthesized from vanillin, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphophene-10-oxide (DOPO) and phenol via a facile way. VDP is characterized with 1H NMR, 31P NMR, FTIR and Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry, and used as a new reactive flame retardant for bisphenol epoxy thermosets. Thermogravimetry analysis shows that when the VDP loading is only 0.5P% (based on phosphorus content), the residue increases from 14.2% to 21.1% at 750°C in N2 compare with neat DGEBA. Correspondingly, the limit oxygen index… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bio-Based Trivalent Phytate: A Novel Strategy for Enhancing Fire Performance of Rigid Polyurethane Foam Composites

    Bing Zhang, Sujie Yang, Mengru Liu, Panyue Wen, Xiuyu Liu, Gang Tang, Xiangrong Xu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1201-1220, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018047
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Biomass phytic acid has potential flame retardant value as the main form of phosphorus in plant seeds. In this study, phytate-based flame retardants aluminum phytate (PA-Al) and iron phytate (PA-Fe) were synthesized and characterized. Subsequently, they were introduced into rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) as flame retardants by one-step water-blown method. The results indicated that RPUF/PA-Fe30 exhibited the highest char residue of 22.1 wt%, significantly higher than 12.4 wt% of RPUF. Cone calorimetry analysis showed that the total heat release (THR) of RPUF/PA-Al30 decreased by 17.0% and total smoke release (TSR) decreased by 22.0% compared with pure RPUF, More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Bio-Based Trivalent Phytate: A Novel Strategy for Enhancing Fire Performance of Rigid Polyurethane Foam Composites

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins

    Hongliang Ding, Xin Wang, Lei Song, Yuan Hu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 871-895, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018150
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Benzoxazines have attracted wide attention from academics all over the world because of their unique properties. However, most of the production and preparation of benzoxazine resins depends on petroleum resources now, especially bisphenol A-based benzoxazine. Therefore, owing to the environmental impacts, the development of bio-based benzoxazines is gaining more and more interest to substitute petroleum-based benzoxazines. Similar to petroleum-based benzoxazines, most of bio-based benzoxazines suffer from flammability. Thus, it is necessary to endow bio-based benzoxazines with outstanding flame retardancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest advance in flame retardant bio-based benzoxazines. More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Borate-Modified, Flame-Retardant Paper Packaging Materials for Archive Conservation

    Juanli Wang, Ming Cao, Jiaxin Li, Kaiyuan Li, Xiaolian Chao, Bingjie Mai, Yuhu Li, Jing Cao
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1125-1136, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018147
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Paper packaging materials like cardboards are widely used to protect archives which are a major kind of cultural relics. Unfortunately, paper is a combustible material, and thus exploring environment-friendly flame retardant for paper-based archive packaging material plays an important role. Herein, boric acid, borax and disodium octaborate are used to modify the craft paper-based packaging materials for archive conservation to improve fire safety. The modified craft paper exhibits much higher flame retardancy than the pristine one dose based on vertical burning tests, without much influence on mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Borate-Modified, Flame-Retardant Paper Packaging Materials for Archive Conservation

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study of Burning Behaviors and Fire Risk of Flame Retardant Plywood by Cone Calorimeter and TG Test

    Liping Yu, Zhongyou Luo, Lifen Li, Xuedong Xi, Zhigang Wu, Bengang Zhang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.12, pp. 2143-2157, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016092
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract A flame retardant composition was prepared by using phosphoguanidine, guanidine sulfamate, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate and dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. Veneers were immersed in such flame retardant mixture to prepare plywood. The combustion characteristics and thermal stability of plywood were assessed using a cone calorimeter and TG. Results showed that: (1) High concentration and loading of flame retardant were beneficial for the fire resistance of the plywood. (2) The limiting oxygen index (LOI) and residual mass of plywood processed using the flame retardant was increased by 87.52% and 58.66% compared to those of the untreated… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation and Properties of Bio-Based Flame Retardant L-APP/Poly(L-lactic acid) Composites

    Qionglin Luo, Mingliang Wang, Hui Zhang, Yuejun Ouyang, Hongwei Lin, You Shu, Shengpei Su
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.12, pp. 2067-2076, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016255
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a thermoplastic material with complete degradability, high biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties. It can replace petroleum-based polymers are currently being used in the fields of packaging, agriculture, textiles, medical and so on. However, PLLA’s extremely flammability greatly limits its wider application. An bio-based flame retardant L-APP/PLLA composites was prepared by melt blending of the L-APP and PLLA. The morphology, impact properties, thermal properties and flame retardant properties of composites were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), impact tester, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), limiting oxygen indexer (LOI)… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Preparation and Properties of Bio-Based Flame Retardant L-APP/Poly(L-lactic acid) Composites

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