Vol.10, No.4, 2022, pp.871-895, doi:10.32604/jrm.2022.018150
Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins
  • Hongliang Ding, Xin Wang*, Lei Song, Yuan Hu
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China
* Corresponding Author: Xin Wang. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
Received 12 July 2021; Accepted 06 August 2021; Issue published 02 November 2021
Benzoxazines have attracted wide attention from academics all over the world because of their unique properties. However, most of the production and preparation of benzoxazine resins depends on petroleum resources now, especially bisphenol A-based benzoxazine. Therefore, owing to the environmental impacts, the development of bio-based benzoxazines is gaining more and more interest to substitute petroleum-based benzoxazines. Similar to petroleum-based benzoxazines, most of bio-based benzoxazines suffer from flammability. Thus, it is necessary to endow bio-based benzoxazines with outstanding flame retardancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest advance in flame retardant bio-based benzoxazines. First, three methods of the synthesis of bio-based benzoxazines are introduced briefly. Furthermore, the curing mechanism of benzoxazine and the effect of branched chains on the curing behavior are also discussed and summarized. Subsequently, this review focuses on fully bio-based benzoxazines, partly bio-based benzoxazines, and bio-based benzoxazine composite materials in terms of flame retardancy as well as thermal stability and some other special properties. Finally, we give a brief comment on the challenges and prospects of the future development of flame retardant bio-based benzoxazines.
Graphical Abstract
Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins
Bio-based benzoxazine; curing mechanism; thermal stability; flame retardancy
Cite This Article
Ding, H., Wang, X., Song, L., Hu, Y. (2022). Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins. Journal of Renewable Materials, 10(4), 871–895.
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