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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Conductive Carbon Black on Thermal and Electrical Properties of Barium Titanate/Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composites for Road Application

    Zhenguo Wang, Lenan Wang, Yejing Meng*, Yong Wen, Jianzhong Pei

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.5, pp. 2469-2489, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025497

    Abstract In the field of roads, due to the effect of vehicle loads, piezoelectric materials under the road surface can convert mechanical vibration into electrical energy, which can be further used in road facilities such as traffic signals and street lamps. The barium titanate/polyvinylidene fluoride (BaTiO3/PVDF) composite, the most common hybrid ceramic-polymer system, was widely used in various fields because the composite combines the good dielectric property of ceramic materials with the good flexibility of PVDF material. Previous studies have found that conductive particles can further improve the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of other composites. However, few studies have investigated the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study of Thermal, Phase Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Poly(L-lactide)-b-Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Poly(L-lactide)/Poly(ethylene glycol) Blend Bioplastics

    Yodthong Baimark*, Theeraphol Phromsopha

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 1881-1894, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025400

    Abstract A poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide)(PLLA-PEG-PLLA) block copolymer has great potential for use as a flexible bioplastic. Highly flexible bioplastics are required for flexible packaging applications. In this work, a PEG was incorporated into block copolymer as a plasticizer by solvent casting. PLLA-PEG-PLLA/ PEG blends with different blend ratios were prepared, and the plasticizing effect and miscibility of PEG in block copolymer were intensively investigated compared to PLLA/PEG blends. The results indicated that the PEG was an effective plasticizer for the block copolymer. The blending of PEG decreased glass-transition temperature and accelerated the crystallization of both the PLLA and PLLA-PEG-PLLA matrices. The PEG… More > Graphic Abstract

    Study of Thermal, Phase Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Poly(L-lactide)-b-Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Poly(L-lactide)/Poly(ethylene glycol) Blend Bioplastics

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Properties of Rosin-Based Composite Acrylamide Hydrogels

    Shuangsheng Zhang, Bin Sun, Siyu Li, Xiangyu Lin, Muhua Chen*, Xu Xu*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 853-865, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022901

    Abstract Hydrogels have been widely applied in agricultural drought-resistance, pollution regulation, drug delivery and so on. Acrylamide (AM) is usually used as raw material to synthesize acrylamide hydrogels. However, inherently low mechanical strength greatly limits their applications in some special areas. Therefore, it is necessary to choose suitable functional monomers to optimize acrylamide hydrogels and improve their mechanical performances. In this paper, a novel acrylamide monomer modified by rosin was synthesized, and then polyacrylamide/rosin-based acrylamide (RAM) composite hydrogels were prepared via free radical polymerization using potassium persulfate as initiator, N, N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. The influence of RAM monomer was… More > Graphic Abstract

    Synthesis and Properties of Rosin-Based Composite Acrylamide Hydrogels

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Thermally Stable Polymers of Cardanol as Char-Forming Additives for Polypropylene

    Weeradech Kiratitanavit1, Sethumadhavan Ravichandran2,Zhiyu Xia1, Jayant Kumar3,4, Ramaswamy Nagarajan1,4,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 289-301, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634126

    Abstract Globally, certain types of halogenated fl ame retardant additives (FR) are becoming increasingly regulated or banned from being used in polymers. There is an immediate need for alternative non-toxic thermally stable polymers and char-forming additives. Development of non-halogenated FR for the commonly used and highly fl ammable thermoplastics, namely polyolefi ns, is particularly important and challenging. This research explores the possibility of utilizing char-forming compounds based on polymer of cardanol as an additive that can lower the heat release capacity (HRC) when blended with polypropylene (PP). Polycardanol is thermally stable and exhibits moderate HRC upon thermal decomposition and forms a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Tunable Hydrophilicity of Poly(ethyl lactate acrylate-coacrylic acid)

    M. Purushothaman1, P. Santhana Gopala Krishnan1,2,*, S. K. Nayak1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.3, No.4, pp. 292-301, 2015, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2015.634114

    Abstract Four copolymers of poly(ethyl lactate acrylate-co-acrylic acid) were prepared by the solution polymerization technique by varying the comonomer content from 0.2 to 0.8 mole percent. The copolymers were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and proton decoupled 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The reactivity ratio of ethyl lactate acrylate (ELA) and acrylic acid (AA) was calculated using the Fineman-Ross method and the values were found to be 0.101 and 0.186, respectively, indicating the formation of an alternating copolymer. From the wide-angle X-ray diffraction studies (WAXD), the average molecular interchain spacing () was calculated from the 2θ value of amorphous halo at about 20°. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of Beta-Cyclodextrin Functionalized Tin Phenylphosphonate on the Thermal Stability and Flame Retardancy of Epoxy Composites

    Yongming Chen1,2,#, Shuai Huang1,#, Han Zhao1, Ru Yang2, Yining He1, Tianyu Zhao1, Yunlong Zhang1, Qinghong Kong1,*, Shasha Sun3,*, Junhao Zhang3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.12, pp. 3119-3130, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019576

    Abstract To enhance the thermal stability and flame retardancy of epoxy resin (EP), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is successfully introduced into the layered tin phenylphosphonate (SnPP), which is incorporated into EP matrix for preparing EP/β-CD@SnPP composites. The results indicate that the addition of β-CD@SnPP obviously improve the thermal stability and residual yield of EP composites at higher temperature. When the amount of β-CD@SnPP is only 4 wt%, EP/4β-CD@SnPP composites pass V-1 rating, and LOI value is up to 30.8%. Meanwhile, β- CD@SnPP effectively suppress the heat release and reduce the smoke production of EP/β-CD@SnPP composites in combustion, and the peak heat release rate… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins

    Hongliang Ding, Xin Wang*, Lei Song, Yuan Hu

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 871-895, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018150

    Abstract Benzoxazines have attracted wide attention from academics all over the world because of their unique properties. However, most of the production and preparation of benzoxazine resins depends on petroleum resources now, especially bisphenol A-based benzoxazine. Therefore, owing to the environmental impacts, the development of bio-based benzoxazines is gaining more and more interest to substitute petroleum-based benzoxazines. Similar to petroleum-based benzoxazines, most of bio-based benzoxazines suffer from flammability. Thus, it is necessary to endow bio-based benzoxazines with outstanding flame retardancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest advance in flame retardant bio-based benzoxazines. First, three methods of the… More > Graphic Abstract

    Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Sawdust Short Fiber Reinforced Epoxidized Natural Rubber: Insight on Its Mechanical, Physical, and Thermal Aspects

    O. S. Dahham1, N. Z. Noriman1,2,*, H. Jaya1, R. Hamzah1, M. U. Umar2,3, I. Johari4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.12, pp. 1633-1645, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.011377

    Abstract In this work, Epoxidized natural rubber/sawdust short fiber (ENR-50/ SD) composites at different fiber content (5, 10, 15 and 20 phr) and size (fine size at 60–100 μm and coarse size at 10–20 mm) were prepared using two-roll mill and electrical-hydraulic hot press machine respectively. Curing characteristics, water uptake, tensile, morphological, physical, and thermal properties of the composites were investigated. Results indicated that the scorch time and cure time became shorter whereas torque improved as SD content increase. Though the decline of tensile strength and elongation at break values, modulus, hardness and crosslinking density have shown enhancements with the increasing… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of the Mechanism and Effectiveness of Lignin in Improving the High-Temperature Thermal Stability of Asphalt

    Cheng Cheng1,2,*, Weiwei Sun2, Bo Hu3, Guixiang Tao2, Chao Peng2, Yanjuan Tian4, Shujuan Wu4,5

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.10, pp. 1243-1255, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.012054

    Abstract The use of lignin, which is a by-product of the pulp and paper industry, in the development of asphalt binders would contribute to waste reduction, providing environmental, economic, and social benefits. In this study, samples of lignin-modified asphalt binder samples with different content of lignin (3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15%) and unmodified asphalt (control) were tested using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and thermogravimetry. The mechanism and effectiveness of lignin in improving the thermal stability of asphalt at high temperatures were analyzed. The FTIR analysis shows that no new characteristic absorption peak is seen in… More >

  • Open Access

    Examination of a Biobased Carbon Nucleating Agent on Poly(lactic acid) Crystallization

    Michael R. Snowdon1,2, Amar K. Mohanty1,2, Manjusri Misra1,2*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 94-105, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634134

    Abstract This article assesses the performance of a biobased carbon as a nucleator using common techniques to stimulate poly(lactic acid) crystallization and enhance the thermal stability of PLA during injection molding. The combination of a biodegradable plasticizer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), along with biobased carbon-rich pyrolyzed biomass char residue and an industrially available microcrystalline talc, were tested for nucleating agent capabilities at additions of 10 wt%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data demonstrated that the inclusion of the plasticizer could increase the PLA crystalline content with further improvements when nucleating agent was present. With a higher mold temperature, the PLA crystallinity surpassed 40%… More >

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