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  • Open Access


    Influence of Beta-Cyclodextrin Functionalized Tin Phenylphosphonate on the Thermal Stability and Flame Retardancy of Epoxy Composites

    Yongming Chen1,2,#, Shuai Huang1,#, Han Zhao1, Ru Yang2, Yining He1, Tianyu Zhao1, Yunlong Zhang1, Qinghong Kong1,*, Shasha Sun3,*, Junhao Zhang3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.12, pp. 3119-3130, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019576

    Abstract To enhance the thermal stability and flame retardancy of epoxy resin (EP), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is successfully introduced into the layered tin phenylphosphonate (SnPP), which is incorporated into EP matrix for preparing EP/β-CD@SnPP composites. The results indicate that the addition of β-CD@SnPP obviously improve the thermal stability and residual yield of EP composites at higher temperature. When the amount of β-CD@SnPP is only 4 wt%, EP/4β-CD@SnPP composites pass V-1 rating, and LOI value is up to 30.8%. Meanwhile, β- CD@SnPP effectively suppress the heat release and reduce the smoke production of EP/β-CD@SnPP composites in combustion, and the peak heat release rate… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of MMT on Flame Retardancy of PLA/IFR/LDH Composites

    Ping Zhang, Siyu Gan, Lin Chen*, Hao Chen, Chunhui Jia, Yingke Fu, Ying Xiong*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.11, pp. 2937-2947, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019590

    Abstract Nano filler synergistic intumescent flame retardant (IFR) system is an effective way to improve the flame retardant properties of polymer. In this study, the effects of montmorillonite (MMT) on the flame retardant properties of polylactic acid/layered double hydroxides (PLA/LDH) and PLA/IFR/LDH were investigated. The results show that both LDH and LDH/IFR can reduce the peak heat release rate (HRR) of PLA and prolong the combustion time of PLA; When a proportionate MMT is introduced into PLA/LDH and PLA/IFR/LDH systems, respectively, MMT will not only affect the degradation process of PLA composites during combustion, but also the PLA composites can form… More >

  • Open Access


    Comparative Study on the Properties of Inorganic Silicate and Organic Phenolic Prepolymer Modified Poplar Wood by Vacuum Cycle Pressurization

    Pengfei Guan1, Ping Li2, Yiqiang Wu1, Xingong Li1, Guangming Yuan1, Yingfeng Zuo1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2451-2463, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020459

    Abstract To enhance mechanical properties and improve flame retardancy and smoke suppression of fast-growing poplar wood in wood applications, the wood was impregnated and modified. An organic phenolic prepolymer and inorganic sodium silicate was used as contrasting impregnation modifiers and wood samples were impregnated by a bionic “respiration” method with alternating positive and negative pressure. The weight percentage gain, density increase ratio, mechanical properties (bending and compressive strength and hardness), and water absorption rate of inorganic and organic-impregnated modified poplar wood (IIMPW and OIMPW, respectively) were compared and these properties in IIMPW were found to be higher than those of OIMPW… More >

  • Open Access


    Halogen-Free Flame Retarded Poly(Lactic Acid) with an Isosorbide-Derived Polyphosphonate

    Wenwen Guo1,2,3, Wei Cai3, Dong Wang1, Junling Wang4, Xiefei Zhu5,*, Bin Fei2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1875-1888, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018823

    Abstract Fabrication of flame retardants from renewable biomass has aroused extensive interest over the past decade. This work reported a synthesis of isosorbide-derived polyphosphonate (PICPP) as an anti-flammable agent for poly (lactic acid) (PLA). The presence of PICPP notably declined the storage modulus of PLA/PICPP owing to the declined molecular weight of PLA catalyzed by the presence of PICPP. PLA and PLA/PICPP thermally degraded in one stage under either air or nitrogen atmosphere. With increasing the amount of PICPP, the onset thermal decomposition temperature of PLA/PICPP was decreased gradually, owing to the earlier decomposition of PICPP. With only 10 wt% of… More >

  • Open Access


    Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins

    Hongliang Ding, Xin Wang*, Lei Song, Yuan Hu

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 871-895, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018150

    Abstract Benzoxazines have attracted wide attention from academics all over the world because of their unique properties. However, most of the production and preparation of benzoxazine resins depends on petroleum resources now, especially bisphenol A-based benzoxazine. Therefore, owing to the environmental impacts, the development of bio-based benzoxazines is gaining more and more interest to substitute petroleum-based benzoxazines. Similar to petroleum-based benzoxazines, most of bio-based benzoxazines suffer from flammability. Thus, it is necessary to endow bio-based benzoxazines with outstanding flame retardancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest advance in flame retardant bio-based benzoxazines. First, three methods of the… More > Graphic Abstract

    Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins

  • Open Access


    Properties of Polyurethane Coatings Based on Linseed Oil Phosphate Ester Polyol

    A. Abolins*, V. Yakushin and D. Vilsone

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.7, pp. 737-745, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00119

    Abstract Linseed oil was epoxidized using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), acetic acid (AcOH) and ion exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 as a catalyst. Epoxidized oil was separately dissolved in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or diethylene glycol butyl ether (DGBE) and phosphorylated with different amounts of phosphoric (H3PO4) acid (1%, 2%, 3% and 5%). The formation of phosphate polyesters was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Based on the synthesized polyols, polyurethane (PU) coatings were prepared. PU coating based on linseed oil diethylene glycol ester polyol was used as the reference. For the characterization of coatings, mechanical tests and… More >

  • Open Access


    Polyisocyanuratoesters: Renewable Linear Polyesters with High Flame Retardancy

    Zijian Chen1, Rui Hou, Jianbing Cheng, Fengjie Fang, Donglin Tang*, Guangzhao Zhang

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 584-590, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00120

    Abstract Biobased urea nowadays attracts increasing attention as a biomass resource with giant potential, which benefits from the development of biobased ammonia and ecological sanitation system. Urea is an ideal feedstock for chemical industry and developing new urea-based pol ymer materials can take advantage of the urea resource. In this work, a class of renewable linear polyesters, nam ely polyisocyanuratoesters (PICEs) were synthesized from a urea-based monomer bis(2-carbomethoxyethyl) isocyanurate and biobased aliphatic diols. Compared with conventional aliphatic polyesters, PICEs containing isocyanurate rings in the polymer chain backbone exhibit outstanding flame retardancy that both PICE-4 (the number ‘4’ refers to the number… More >

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