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Ancient Materials and Substitution Materials Used in Thai Historical Masonry Structure Preservation

Natthanan Wonganan, Chainarong Athisakul*, Peerasit Mahasuwanchai, Weerachart Tangchirapat, Raktipong Sahamitmongkol, Sutat Leelataviwat

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 10140, Thailand

* Corresponding Author: Chainarong Athisakul. Email: email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable materials for sustainable development)

Journal of Renewable Materials 2021, 9(2), 179-204.

icon An Erratum to this article was published on 12 May 2021.

icon The article has been updated


The historical structures of Thailand are some of the most fascinating ancient sites in Asia. Their architectures reveal past cultures, traditions, knowledge, and expertise. Masonry materials are the major materials used to construct the historical structures in Thailand. One of the essential problem of Thai historical structure preservation is a shortage of engineering properties data for the structural stability assessment. Moreover, the in-depth engineering properties and the suitable substitution materials for Thai historical preservation are rarely found. Therefore, the engineering properties of the ancient masonry materials have to be explored together with the development of suitable substitute materials. This paper presents the physical and engineering properties of ancient materials and substitution materials for the preservation of Thailand’s historical structures. The ancient materials, including brick and mortar, are collected from historical places in the Bangkok and Ayutthaya Provinces. The physical and engineering properties of the masonry materials, such as the chemical composition, mineralogical composition, density, porosity, absorption, water vapor transmission, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity, were evaluated in the laboratory. Fly ash was used as a pozzolanic material to partially replace the slaked lime to restore the historical mortar. The binder to sand ratio was controlled at 1:3 by weight. The slaked lime was substituted by fly ash at the rates of 10–30% by weight of binder. The engineering properties of the substitution mortars were also evaluated and compared with the ancient masonry materials. A masonry prism was also constructed to evaluate the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity of the masonry structures. The physical and engineering properties of the ancient masonry materials obtained in this study can be included in a database for the preservation of Thailand’s historical masonry structures. The use of fly ash to partially replace the slaked lime could decrease the setting time and increase the compressive strength of historical repair mortar. The empirical equation obtained from this study could be used to predict the compressive strength of the masonry prisms of Thailand’s historical structures.


Change history

12 May 2021 The fourth author's name in the original paper was incorrectly spelled as ‘Weerachart Tanchirapat’. The corrected spelling of the fourth author's name is ‘Weerachart Tangchirapat’. The authors apologize for this error, which has now been corrected in the original article.

Cite This Article

Wonganan, N., Athisakul, C., Mahasuwanchai, P., Tangchirapat, W., Sahamitmongkol, R. et al. (2021). Ancient Materials and Substitution Materials Used in Thai Historical Masonry Structure Preservation. Journal of Renewable Materials, 9(2), 179–204.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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