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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intelligent Fractional-Order Controller for SMES Systems in Renewable Energy-Based Microgrid

    Aadel M. Alatwi1,2, Abualkasim Bakeer3, Sherif A. Zaid1,*, Ibrahem E. Atawi1, Hani Albalawi1,4, Ahmed M. Kassem5

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.140, No.2, pp. 1807-1830, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2024.048521

    Abstract An autonomous microgrid that runs on renewable energy sources is presented in this article. It has a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device, wind energy-producing devices, and an energy storage battery. However, because such microgrids are nonlinear and the energy they create varies with time, controlling and managing the energy inside them is a difficult issue. Fractional-order proportional integral (FOPI) controller is recommended for the current research to enhance a standalone microgrid’s energy management and performance. The suggested dedicated control for the SMES comprises two loops: the outer loop, which uses the FOPI to regulate the DC-link voltage, and the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on Operation Optimization of Energy Storage Power Station and Integrated Energy Microgrid Alliance Based on Stackelberg Game

    Yu Zhang*, Lianmin Li, Zhongxiang Liu, Yuhu Wu

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.5, pp. 1209-1221, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2024.046141

    Abstract With the development of renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics and wind power, it has become a research hotspot to improve the consumption rate of new energy and reduce energy costs through the deployment of energy storage. To solve the problem of the interests of different subjects in the operation of the energy storage power stations (ESS) and the integrated energy multi-microgrid alliance (IEMA), this paper proposes the optimization operation method of the energy storage power station and the IEMA based on the Stackelberg game. In the upper layer, ESS optimizes charging and discharging decisions through a dynamic pricing mechanism.… More > Graphic Abstract

    Research on Operation Optimization of Energy Storage Power Station and Integrated Energy Microgrid Alliance Based on Stackelberg Game

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Defender-Attacker-Defender Model for Resilient Distributed Generator Planning with Network Reconfiguration and Demand Response

    Wenlu Ji*, Teng Tu, Nan Ma

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.5, pp. 1223-1243, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2024.046112

    Abstract To improve the resilience of a distribution system against extreme weather, a fuel-based distributed generator (DG) allocation model is proposed in this study. In this model, the DGs are placed at the planning stage. When an extreme event occurs, the controllable generators form temporary microgrids (MGs) to restore the load maximally. Simultaneously, a demand response program (DRP) mitigates the imbalance between the power supply and demand during extreme events. To cope with the fault uncertainty, a robust optimization (RO) method is applied to reduce the long-term investment and short-term operation costs. The optimization is formulated as a tri-level defender-attacker-defender (DAD)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on the Stability Analysis Method of DC Microgrid Based on Bifurcation and Strobe Theory

    Wei Chen, Nan Qiu*, Xusheng Yang

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.4, pp. 987-1005, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.045475

    Abstract During the operation of a DC microgrid, the nonlinearity and low damping characteristics of the DC bus make it prone to oscillatory instability. In this paper, we first establish a discrete nonlinear system dynamic model of a DC microgrid, study the effects of the converter sag coefficient, input voltage, and load resistance on the microgrid stability, and reveal the oscillation mechanism of a DC microgrid caused by a single source. Then, a DC microgrid stability analysis method based on the combination of bifurcation and strobe is used to analyze how the aforementioned parameters influence the oscillation characteristics of the system.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimal Bidding Strategies of Microgrid with Demand Side Management for Economic Emission Dispatch Incorporating Uncertainty and Outage of Renewable Energy Sources

    Mousumi Basu1, Chitralekha Jena2, Baseem Khan3,4,*, Ahmed Ali4

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.4, pp. 849-867, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2024.043294

    Abstract In the restructured electricity market, microgrid (MG), with the incorporation of smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources (DERs), a pumped-storage-hydraulic (PSH) unit, and a demand response program (DRP), is a smarter and more reliable electricity provider. DER consists of gas turbines and renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic systems and wind turbines. Better bidding strategies, prepared by MG operators, decrease the electricity cost and emissions from upstream grid and conventional and renewable energy sources (RES). But it is inefficient due to the very high sporadic characteristics of RES and the very high outage rate. To solve these issues, this study… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Adaptive Control Strategy for Energy Storage Interface Converter Based on Analogous Virtual Synchronous Generator

    Feng Zhao, Jinshuo Zhang*, Xiaoqiang Chen, Ying Wang

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 339-358, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.043082

    Abstract In the DC microgrid, the lack of inertia and damping in power electronic converters results in poor stability of DC bus voltage and low inertia of the DC microgrid during fluctuations in load and photovoltaic power. To address this issue, the application of a virtual synchronous generator (VSG) in grid-connected inverters control is referenced and proposes a control strategy called the analogous virtual synchronous generator (AVSG) control strategy for the interface DC/DC converter of the battery in the microgrid. Besides, a flexible parameter adaptive control method is introduced to further enhance the inertial behavior of the AVSG control. Firstly, a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Automatic SOC Equalization Strategy of Energy Storage Units with DC Microgrid Bus Voltage Support

    Jingjing Tian1, Shenglin Mo1,*, Feng Zhao1, Xiaoqiang Chen2

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 439-459, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.029956

    Abstract In this paper, an improved sag control strategy based on automatic SOC equalization is proposed to solve the problems of slow SOC equalization and excessive bus voltage fluctuation amplitude and offset caused by load and PV power variations in a stand-alone DC microgrid. The strategy includes primary and secondary control. Among them, the primary control suppresses the DC microgrid voltage fluctuation through the Ⅰ and Ⅱ section control, and the secondary control aims to correct the P-U curve of the energy storage system and the PV system, thus reducing the steady-state bus voltage excursion. The simulation results demonstrate that the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Emergency Energy Management of Microgrid in Industrial Park Based on Robust Optimization

    Haoliang Yang*, Yonggang Dong, Zhifang Yang

    Energy Engineering, Vol.120, No.12, pp. 2917-2931, 2023, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.029167

    Abstract Reducing the impact of power outages and maintaining the power supply duration must be considered in implementing emergency energy dispatching in micro-networks. This paper studies a new emergency energy treatment method based on the robust optimal method and the industrial park micro-network with the optical energy storage system. After controlling the load input, a control strategy of adjusting and removing is proposed. Rolling optimal theory is applied to emergency energy scheduling based on a robust optimal mathematical model. A weighting factor is introduced into the optimal model to balance the importance of reducing and retaining the power supply. Uncertainty is… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Blockchain-Based Game Approach to Multi-Microgrid Energy Dispatch

    Zhikang Wang#, Chengxuan Wang#, Wendi Wu, Cheng Sun, Zhengtian Wu*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.1, pp. 845-863, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.029442

    Abstract As the current global environment is deteriorating, distributed renewable energy is gradually becoming an important member of the energy internet. Blockchain, as a decentralized distributed ledger with decentralization, traceability and tamper-proof features, is an important way to achieve efficient consumption and multi-party supply of new energy. In this article, we establish a blockchain-based mathematical model of multiple microgrids and microgrid aggregators’ revenue, consider the degree of microgrid users’ preference for electricity thus increasing users’ reliance on the blockchain market, and apply the one-master-multiple-slave Stackelberg game theory to solve the energy dispatching strategy when each market entity pursues the maximum revenue.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Secure Microgrid Data Storage Strategy with Directed Acyclic Graph Consensus Mechanism

    Jian Shang1,2,*, Runmin Guan2, Wei Wang2

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.3, pp. 2609-2626, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.037694

    Abstract The wide application of intelligent terminals in microgrids has fueled the surge of data amount in recent years. In real-world scenarios, microgrids must store large amounts of data efficiently while also being able to withstand malicious cyberattacks. To meet the high hardware resource requirements, address the vulnerability to network attacks and poor reliability in the traditional centralized data storage schemes, this paper proposes a secure storage management method for microgrid data that considers node trust and directed acyclic graph (DAG) consensus mechanism. Firstly, the microgrid data storage model is designed based on the edge computing technology. The blockchain, deployed on… More >

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