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  • Open Access


    Process Characterization of the Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil to Biodiesel Using Design of Experiments and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Tobias Drieschner1,2,*, Andreas Kandelbauer1, Bernd Hitzmann2, Karsten Rebner1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 1643-1660, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.024429

    Abstract For optimization of production processes and product quality, often knowledge of the factors influencing the process outcome is compulsory. Thus, process analytical technology (PAT) that allows deeper insight into the process and results in a mathematical description of the process behavior as a simple function based on the most important process factors can help to achieve higher production efficiency and quality. The present study aims at characterizing a well-known industrial process, the transesterification reaction of rapeseed oil with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for usage as biodiesel in a continuous micro reactor set-up. To this end, a… More >

  • Open Access


    Soil Urea Analysis Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning

    J. Haritha1,*, R. S. Valarmathi2, M. Kalamani3

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.32, No.3, pp. 1867-1880, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.022547

    Abstract Urea is the most common fertilizer used by the farmers. In this study, the variation of mid-infrared transmittance spectra with addition of urea in soil was studied for five different concentrations of urea. 150 gm of soil is taken and dried in a hot air oven for 5 h at 80°C and then samples are prepared by adding urea and water to it. The spectral signature of soil with urea is obtained by using an Infrared Spectrometer that reads the spectra in the mid infra-red region. The analysis is done using Partial Least Square Regression and Support Vector Machine algorithms… More >

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