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  • Open Access


    Papain Catalyzed Synthesis of Protected Amino Acid Amides

    Leendert W. Schwab, Wouter M. J. Kloosterman, Jakob Konieczny, Katja Loos*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 73-78, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2012.634102

    Abstract The papain catalyzed enzymatic synthesis of amido amines catalyzed from aromatic diamines and N-carbobenzyloxy (Z) protected amino acids (Gly, L-Leu, L-Phe) is described. The amides precipitate (yield 19–47 % depending on the amino acid used) from the reaction mixture after one amide bond is formed thus preventing the formation of diamides in all cases. Papain retains its activity in buffers with a higher pH (9 and 12) observable by the amide bond formation between 1,3-phenylene diamine and Z-L-Gly and Z-L-Phe. Aliphatic diamines (1,4-butanediamine and 1,6-hexanediamine) were used as well but amide formation could not be More >

  • Open Access


    An Improved Transfer-Learning for Image-Based Species Classification of Protected Indonesians Birds

    Chao-Lung Yang1, Yulius Harjoseputro2,3, Yu-Chen Hu4, Yung-Yao Chen2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 4577-4593, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.031305

    Abstract This research proposed an improved transfer-learning bird classification framework to achieve a more precise classification of Protected Indonesia Birds (PIB) which have been identified as the endangered bird species. The framework takes advantage of using the proposed sequence of Batch Normalization Dropout Fully-Connected (BNDFC) layers to enhance the baseline model of transfer learning. The main contribution of this work is the proposed sequence of BNDFC that can be applied to any Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based model to improve the classification accuracy, especially for image-based species classification problems. The experiment results show that the proposed More >

  • Open Access


    Protected Fair Secret Sharing Based Bivariate Asymmetric Polynomials in Satellite Network

    Yanyan Han1,2, Jiangping Yu3, Guangyu Hu4, Chenglei Pan4, Dingbang Xie5, Chao Guo1,2,6,*, Abdul Waheed7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.3, pp. 4789-4802, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.027496

    Abstract Verifiable secret sharing mainly solves the cheating behavior between malicious participants and the ground control center in the satellite network. The verification stage can verify the effectiveness of secret shares issued by the ground control center to each participant and verify the effectiveness of secret shares shown by participants. We use a lot of difficult assumptions based on mathematical problems in the verification stage, such as solving the difficult problem of the discrete logarithm, large integer prime factorization, and so on. Compared with other verifiable secret sharing schemes designed for difficult problems under the same… More >

  • Open Access


    A Numerical Investigation of the Stress Relief Zones Around a Longwall Face in the Lower Seam for Gas Drainage Considerations

    Chunlei Zhang1,2,3,*, Y. P. Chugh2, Ruimin Feng4, Yong Zhang5, Wei Shen1, Jingke Wu1, Yushun Yang1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.1, pp. 135-157, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.014665

    Abstract Extraction of a protective coal seam (PVCS)-below or above a coal seam to be mined with the potential of coal and gas outburst risk-plays an important role not only in decreasing the stress field in the surrounding rock mass but also in increasing the gas desorption capacity and gas flow permeability in the protected coal seam (PTCS). The PVCS is mined to guarantee the safe mining of the PTCS. This study has numerically evaluated the stress redistribution effects using FLAC3D model for a longwall face in Shanxi Province. The effects of mining depth, mining height… More >

  • Open Access


    A Key Recovery System Based on Password-Protected Secret Sharing in a Permissioned Blockchain

    Gyeong-Jin Ra1, Chang-Hyun Roh1, Im-Yeong Lee1, *

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.65, No.1, pp. 153-170, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.011293

    Abstract In today’s fourth industrial revolution, various blockchain technologies are being actively researched. A blockchain is a peer-to-peer data-sharing structure lacking central control. If a user wishes to access stored data, she/he must employ a private key to prove ownership of the data and create a transaction. If the private key is lost, blockchain data cannot be accessed. To solve such a problem, public blockchain users can recover the key using a wallet program. However, key recovery in a permissioned blockchain (PBC) has been but little studied. The PBC server is Honest-but-Curious (HBC), and should not More >

  • Open Access


    AFLP polymorphism in restored provenances of Ceiba aesculifolia within an urban heat island

    Olvera-Mendoza EI1, SI Lara-Cabrera1, C Sáenz-Romero2, R Lindig-Cisneros3

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 169-175, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.169

    Abstract To quantify the effect on genetic diversity of restoring tree populations in an area under the influence of an urban heat island, we evaluated the genetic diversity of 72 Ceiba aesculifolia individuals, from a restoration experiment established from 2170 to 2260 m a.s.l. Reintroduced individuals were compared with the provenance from which the seeds were obtained, and two external provenances, for a total of 123 individuals. Samples were analyzed with three AFLP primer combinations. Polymorphisms of 38.4 to 62.5% were obtained. Genetic diversity estimated with the Simpson index ranged from 0.14 to 0.2. The provenances in More >

  • Open Access


    Dynamic growth of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) on a substrate based on vermicompost in the greenhouse

    Orozco V JA1, E Galindo P2, MA Segura C1, M Fortis H1, P Preciado R1, P Yescas C1, JA Montemayor T1

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 117-124, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.117

    Abstract The aim of this study was to establish the dynamics of growth and allocation of photosynthates in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in a semiarid region under greenhouse conditions and in an organic substrate. Squash seeds were sown in two substrates (one mineral and other organic). The first consisted of a mixture of sand and pumice on a volume basis, while the organic consisted of sand and pumice mixed with vermicompost, both in plastic pots. The substrates were for two treatments [Inorganic (IT) and Organic Treatment (OT)] with sixteen repetitions on a completely randomized design. After… More >

  • Open Access


    Pre-germination treatments on Senna arnottiana and Senna kurtzii: key contributions for restoration initiatives in Payunia, Patagonia, Argentina

    Turuelo NM1, DR Pérez2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.87, pp. 260-264, 2018, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2018.87.260

    Abstract In arid and semi-arid ecosystems, increasing and irreversible degradation in areas of high conservation value has prompted the search for various solutions, such as rehabilitation and ecological restoration. To implement these strategies, it is essential to solve critical issues affecting the establishment of plants in the field and the production of seedlings in nursery gardens. In the present work, the following pre-germination treatments were evaluated for the species Senna arnottiana and S. kurtzii, endemic to the Patagonian steppe (Payunia): (1) Immersion in water at 80 °C for 5 minutes; (2) Immersion in water at 80 °C for… More >

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