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  • Open Access


    Fuzzy Difference Equations in Diagnoses of Glaucoma from Retinal Images Using Deep Learning

    D. Dorathy Prema Kavitha1, L. Francis Raj1, Sandeep Kautish2,#, Abdulaziz S. Almazyad3, Karam M. Sallam4, Ali Wagdy Mohamed5,6,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.1, pp. 801-816, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.030902

    Abstract The intuitive fuzzy set has found important application in decision-making and machine learning. To enrich and utilize the intuitive fuzzy set, this study designed and developed a deep neural network-based glaucoma eye detection using fuzzy difference equations in the domain where the retinal images converge. Retinal image detections are categorized as normal eye recognition, suspected glaucomatous eye recognition, and glaucomatous eye recognition. Fuzzy degrees associated with weighted values are calculated to determine the level of concentration between the fuzzy partition and the retinal images. The proposed model was used to diagnose glaucoma using retinal images and involved utilizing the Convolutional… More >

  • Open Access


    A Unique Discrete Wavelet & Deterministic Walk-Based Glaucoma Classification Approach Using Image-Specific Enhanced Retinal Images

    Krishna Santosh Naidana, Soubhagya Sankar Barpanda*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.1, pp. 699-720, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.036744

    Abstract Glaucoma is a group of ocular atrophy diseases that cause progressive vision loss by affecting the optic nerve. Because of its asymptomatic nature, glaucoma has become the leading cause of human blindness worldwide. In this paper, a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach for glaucomatous retinal image classification has been introduced. It extracts graph-based texture features from structurally improved fundus images using discrete wavelet-transformation (DWT) and deterministic tree-walk (DTW) procedures. Retinal images are considered from both public repositories and eye hospitals. Images are enhanced with image-specific luminance and gradient transitions for both contrast and texture improvement. The enhanced images are mapped… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel Soft Clustering Method for Detection of Exudates

    Kittipol Wisaeng*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 1039-1058, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034901

    Abstract One of the earliest indications of diabetes consequence is Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), the main contributor to blindness worldwide. Recent studies have proposed that Exudates (EXs) are the hallmark of DR severity. The present study aims to accurately and automatically detect EXs that are difficult to detect in retinal images in the early stages. An improved Fusion of Histogram–Based Fuzzy C–Means Clustering (FHBFCM) by a New Weight Assignment Scheme (NWAS) and a set of four selected features from stages of pre-processing to evolve the detection method is proposed. The features of DR train the optimal parameter of FHBFCM for detecting EXs… More >

  • Open Access


    Machine Learning Based Diagnosis for Diabetic Retinopathy for SKPD-PSC

    M. P. Thiruvenkatasuresh1,*, Surbhi Bhatia2, Shakila Basheer3, Pankaj Dadheech4

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.36, No.2, pp. 1767-1782, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.033711

    Abstract The study aimed to apply to Machine Learning (ML) researchers working in image processing and biomedical analysis who play an extensive role in comprehending and performing on complex medical data, eventually improving patient care. Developing a novel ML algorithm specific to Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a challenge and need of the hour. Biomedical images include several challenges, including relevant feature selection, class variations, and robust classification. Although the current research in DR has yielded favourable results, several research issues need to be explored. There is a requirement to look at novel pre-processing methods to discard irrelevant features, balance the obtained… More >

  • Open Access


    Automatic Optic Disc Detection in Retinal Images Using FKMT‒MOPDF

    Kittipol Wisaeng*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.3, pp. 2569-2586, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.033226

    Abstract In recent days, detecting Optic Disc (OD) in retinal images has been challenging and very important to the early diagnosis of eye diseases. The process of detecting the OD is challenging due to the diversity of color, intensity, brightness and shape of the OD. Moreover, the color similarities of the neighboring organs of the OD create difficulties during OD detection. In the proposed Fuzzy K‒Means Threshold (FKMT) and Morphological Operation with Pixel Density Feature (MOPDF), the input retinal images are coarsely segmented by fuzzy K‒means clustering and thresholding, in which the OD is classified from its neighboring organs with intensity… More >

  • Open Access


    Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy from Retinal Images Using DenseNet Models

    R. Nandakumar1, P. Saranya2,*, Vijayakumar Ponnusamy3, Subhashree Hazra2, Antara Gupta2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.1, pp. 279-292, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.028703

    Abstract A prevalent diabetic complication is Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), which can damage the retina’s veins, leading to a severe loss of vision. If treated in the early stage, it can help to prevent vision loss. But since its diagnosis takes time and there is a shortage of ophthalmologists, patients suffer vision loss even before diagnosis. Hence, early detection of DR is the necessity of the time. The primary purpose of the work is to apply the data fusion/feature fusion technique, which combines more than one relevant feature to predict diabetic retinopathy at an early stage with greater accuracy. Mechanized procedures for… More >

  • Open Access


    Detection and Classification of Hemorrhages in Retinal Images

    Ghassan Ahmed Ali1, Thamer Mitib Ahmad Al Sariera2,*, Muhammad Akram1, Adel Sulaiman1, Fekry Olayah1

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.44, No.2, pp. 1601-1616, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.026119

    Abstract Damage of the blood vessels in retina due to diabetes is called diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hemorrhages is the first clinically visible symptoms of DR. This paper presents a new technique to extract and classify the hemorrhages in fundus images. The normal objects such as blood vessels, fovea and optic disc inside retinal images are masked to distinguish them from hemorrhages. For masking blood vessels, thresholding that separates blood vessels and background intensity followed by a new filter to extract the border of vessels based on orientations of vessels are used. For masking optic disc, the image is divided into sub-images… More >

  • Open Access


    Classification of Glaucoma in Retinal Images Using EfficientnetB4 Deep Learning Model

    A. Geetha, N. B. Prakash*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.43, No.3, pp. 1041-1055, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.023680

    Abstract Today, many eye diseases jeopardize our everyday lives, such as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), and Glaucoma. Glaucoma is an incurable and unavoidable eye disease that damages the vision of optic nerves and quality of life. Classification of Glaucoma has been an active field of research for the past ten years. Several approaches for Glaucoma classification are established, beginning with conventional segmentation methods and feature-extraction to deep-learning techniques such as Convolution Neural Networks (CNN). In contrast, CNN classifies the input images directly using tuned parameters of convolution and pooling layers by extracting features. But, the volume of training… More >

  • Open Access


    Detection and Grading of Diabetic Retinopathy in Retinal Images Using Deep Intelligent Systems: A Comprehensive Review

    H. Asha Gnana Priya1, J. Anitha1, Daniela Elena Popescu2, Anju Asokan1, D. Jude Hemanth1, Le Hoang Son3,4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.3, pp. 2771-2786, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.012907

    Abstract Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an eye disease that mainly affects people with diabetes. People affected by DR start losing their vision from an early stage even though the symptoms are identified only at the later stage. Once the vision is lost, it cannot be regained but can be prevented from causing any further damage. Early diagnosis of DR is required for preventing vision loss, for which a trained ophthalmologist is required. The clinical practice is time-consuming and is not much successful in identifying DR at early stages. Hence, Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system is a suitable alternative for screening and grading… More >

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