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  • Open Access


    Information Security Evaluation of Industrial Control Systems Using Probabilistic Linguistic MCDM Method

    Wenshu Xu, Mingwei Lin*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 199-222, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.041475

    Abstract Industrial control systems (ICSs) are widely used in various fields, and the information security problems of ICSs are increasingly serious. The existing evaluation methods fail to describe the uncertain evaluation information and group evaluation information of experts. Thus, this paper introduces the probabilistic linguistic term sets (PLTSs) to model the evaluation information of experts. Meanwhile, we propose a probabilistic linguistic multi-criteria decision-making (PL-MCDM) method to solve the information security assessment problem of ICSs. Firstly, we propose a novel subscript equivalence distance measure of PLTSs to improve the existing methods. Secondly, we use the Best Worst Method (BWM) method and Criteria… More >

  • Open Access


    Blockchain Security Threats and Collaborative Defense: A Literature Review

    Xiulai Li1,2,3,4, Jieren Cheng1,3,*, Zhaoxin Shi2,3, Jingxin Liu2,3, Bin Zhang1,3, Xinbing Xu2,3, Xiangyan Tang1,3, Victor S. Sheng5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.3, pp. 2597-2629, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.040596

    Abstract As a distributed database, the system security of the blockchain is of great significance to prevent tampering, protect privacy, prevent double spending, and improve credibility. Due to the decentralized and trustless nature of blockchain, the security defense of the blockchain system has become one of the most important measures. This paper comprehensively reviews the research progress of blockchain security threats and collaborative defense, and we first introduce the overview, classification, and threat assessment process of blockchain security threats. Then, we investigate the research status of single-node defense technology and multi-node collaborative defense technology and summarize the blockchain security evaluation indicators… More >

  • Open Access


    TRUSED: A Trust-Based Security Evaluation Scheme for A Distributed Control System

    Saqib Ali1,*, Raja Waseem Anwar2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.2, pp. 4381-4398, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.031472

    Abstract Distributed control systems (DCS) have revolutionized the communication process and attracted more interest due to their pervasive computing nature (cyber/physical), their monitoring capabilities and the benefits they offer. However, due to distributed communication, flexible network topologies and lack of central control, the traditional security strategies are inadequate for meeting the unique characteristics of DCS. Moreover, malicious and untrustworthy nodes pose a significant threat during the formation of a DCS network. Trust-based secure systems not only monitor and track the behavior of the nodes but also enhance the security by identifying and isolating the malicious node, which reduces the risk and… More >

  • Open Access


    QoS Based Cloud Security Evaluation Using Neuro Fuzzy Model

    Nadia Tabassum1, Tahir Alyas2, Muhammad Hamid3,*, Muhammad Saleem4, Saadia Malik5, Syeda Binish Zahra2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.1, pp. 1127-1140, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019760

    Abstract Cloud systems are tools and software for cloud computing that are deployed on the Internet or a cloud computing network, and users can use them at any time. After assessing and choosing cloud providers, however, customers confront the variety and difficulty of quality of service (QoS). To increase customer retention and engagement success rates, it is critical to research and develops an accurate and objective evaluation model. Cloud is the emerging environment for distributed services at various layers. Due to the benefits of this environment, globally cloud is being taken as a standard environment for individuals as well as for… More >

  • Open Access


    Ecological Security Evaluation Algorithm for Resource-Exhausted Cities Based on the PSR Model

    Xiaozhou Li1,2, Zhenggang Xu1, Yuanyuan Fu3, Qi Jin1, Yunlin Zhao1,*, Neal N. Xiong4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 985-1001, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017357

    Abstract Today, resource depletion threatens a number of resource-based cities in China. The ecological security problem caused by the long-term exploitation of natural resources is a key issue to be solved in the development of resource-exhausted cities. Using 23 indicators, this study evaluated the ecological security status and development trends of 21 resource-exhausted cities in China from 2011 to 2017. The results showed that from 2011 to 2015, the overall ecological security of this type of city was low, with over 60% of the cities at an unsafe level. However, ecological security improved rapidly after 2016, and by 2017, all of… More >

  • Open Access


    Impact of Tools and Techniques for Securing Consultancy Services

    Wael Alosaimi1, Abdullah Alharbi1, Hashem Alyami2, Masood Ahmad3, Abhishek Kumar Pandey3, Rajeev Kumar3,4,*, Raees Ahmad Khan3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.37, No.3, pp. 347-360, 2021, DOI:10.32604/csse.2021.015284

    Abstract In a digital world moving at a breakneck speed, consultancy services have emerged as one of the prominent resources for seeking effective, sustainable and economically viable solutions to a given crisis. The present day consultancy services are aided by the use of multiple tools and techniques. However, ensuring the security of these tools and techniques is an important concern for the consultants because even a slight malfunction of any tool could alter the results drastically. Consultants usually tackle these functions after establishing the clients’ needs and developing the appropriate strategy. Nevertheless, most of the consultants tend to focus more on… More >

  • Open Access


    Comprehensive Information Security Evaluation Model Based on Multi-Level Decomposition Feedback for IoT

    Jinxin Zuo1, 3, Yueming Lu1, 3, *, Hui Gao2, 3, Ruohan Cao2, 3, Ziyv Guo2, 3, Jim Feng4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.65, No.1, pp. 683-704, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.010793

    Abstract The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) calls for a comprehensive information security evaluation framework to quantitatively measure the safety score and risk (S&R) value of the network urgently. In this paper, we summarize the architecture and vulnerability in IoT and propose a comprehensive information security evaluation model based on multi-level decomposition feedback. The evaluation model provides an idea for information security evaluation of IoT and guides the security decision maker for dynamic protection. Firstly, we establish an overall evaluation indicator system that includes four primary indicators of threat information, asset, vulnerability, and management, respectively. It also includes eleven… More >

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