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  • Open Access


    Optimal Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Based on Butterfly Optimization Algorithm

    Noor Gul1,2, Saeed Ahmed1,3, Atif Elahi4, Su Min Kim1, Junsu Kim1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 369-387, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022260

    Abstract Since the introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT), several researchers have been exploring its productivity to utilize and organize the spectrum assets. Cognitive radio (CR) technology is characterized as the best aspirant for wireless communications to augment IoT competencies. In the CR networks, secondary users (SUs) opportunistically get access to the primary users (PUs) spectrum through spectrum sensing. The multipath issues in the wireless channel can fluster the sensing ability of the individual SUs. Therefore, several cooperative SUs are engaged in cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) to ensure reliable sensing results. In CSS, security is still a major concern for… More >

  • Open Access


    Design of an Efficient Cooperative Spectrum for Intra-Hospital Cognitive Radio Network

    Abhinav Adarsh1, Basant Kumar1, Manoj Gupta2, Arun Kumar2, Aman Singh3,*, Mehedi Masud4, Fahad A. Alraddady5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 35-49, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017647

    Abstract This paper presents a new low delay centralized cooperative spectrum sensing method based on dynamic voting rule using multiple threshold level, for indoor hospital environment, where fading and direct path loss both are together responsible for variation in signal strength. In the proposed algorithm, weights of Cognitive Radios (CRs) in terms of assigned vote-count are estimated based on the sensed energy values with respect to multiple fixed threshold levels, so that the direct path loss can be dealt without further increasing the error, which occurs due to fading. For indoor hospital like environment, Rician fading model is more appropriate. Therefore,… More >

  • Open Access


    Detection of the Spectrum Hole from N-number of Primary Users Using the Gencluster Algorithm

    U. Venkateshkumar1,*, S. Ramakrishnan2

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.26, No.4, pp. 817-830, 2020, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2020.010116

    Abstract A hybrid form of the genetic algorithm and the modified K-Means cluster algorithm forms as a Gencluster to detect a spectrum hole among n-number of primary users (PUs) is present in the cooperative spectrum sensing model. The fusion center (FC), applies the genetic algorithm to identify the best chromosome, which contains many PUs cluster centers and by applying the modified K-Means cluster algorithm identifies the cluster with the PU vacant spectrum showing high accuracy, and maximum probability of detection with minimum false alarm rates are achieved. The graphical representation of the performance metric of the system model shows 95% accuracy… More >

  • Open Access


    An Efficient Optimized Handover in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Cooperative Spectrum Sensing

    H. Anandakumara, K. Umamaheswarib

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 843-849, 2018, DOI:10.1080/10798587.2017.1364931

    Abstract Cognitive radio systems necessitate the incorporation of cooperative spectrum sensing among cognitive users to increase the reliability of detection. We have found that cooperative spectrum sensing is not only advantageous, but is also essential to avoid interference with any primary users. Interference by licensed users becomes a chief concern and issue, which affects primary as well as secondary users leading to restrictions in spectrum sensing in cognitive radios. When the number of cognitive users increases, the overheads of the systems, which are meant to report the sensing results to the common receiver, which becomes massive. When the spectrum, which is… More >

  • Open Access


    Cooperative Perception Optimization Based on Self-Checking Machine Learning

    Haoxiang Sun1, *, Changxing Chen1, Yunfei Ling1, Mu Yang1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.62, No.2, pp. 747-761, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.05625

    Abstract In the process of spectrum perception, in order to realize accurate perception of the channel state, the method of multi-node cooperative perception can usually be used. However, the first problem to be considered is how to complete information fusion and obtain more accurate and reliable judgment results based on multi-node perception results. The ideas put forward in this paper are as follows: firstly, the perceived results of each node are obtained on the premise of limiting detection probability and false alarm probability. Then, on the one hand, the weighted fusion criterion of decision-making weight optimization of each node is realized… More >

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