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  • Open Access


    Real-Time CNN-Based Driver Distraction & Drowsiness Detection System

    Abdulwahab Ali Almazroi1,*, Mohammed A. Alqarni2, Nida Aslam3, Rizwan Ali Shah4

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.2, pp. 2153-2174, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.039732

    Abstract Nowadays days, the chief grounds of automobile accidents are driver fatigue and distractions. With the development of computer vision technology, a cutting-edge system has the potential to spot driver distractions or sleepiness and alert them, reducing accidents. This paper presents a novel approach to detecting driver tiredness based on eye and mouth movements and object identification that causes a distraction while operating a motor vehicle. Employing the facial landmarks that the camera picks up and sends to classify using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) any changes by focusing on the eyes and mouth zone, precision is achieved. One of the… More >

  • Open Access



    A. Sahaya Jenifera , P. Saikrishnana,*, J. Rajakumarb

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.17, pp. 1-8, 2021, DOI:10.5098/hmt.17.4

    Abstract This paper examines the steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of water over a yawed cylinder with variable fluid properties and non-uniform mass transfer. The impact of viscous dissipation is taken into consideration. The velocity and temperature fields are governed by coupled nonlinear partial differential equations together with boundary constraints. These governing equations are converted to dimensionless form with suitable non-similar transformations and then solved using an implicit finite difference method and the quasi-linearization technique. The results indicate that the yaw angle enhancement declines the skin friction coefficient in the axial direction and the heat transfer coefficient. It is also ascertained that… More >

  • Open Access


    Study of the Flow Mechanism of Wind Turbine Blades in the Yawed Condition

    Shuang Zhao1,2,3, Xijun Li4, Jianwen Wang1,2,3,*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.4, pp. 1379-1392, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019776

    Abstract The computational fluid dynamics method was used to simulate the flow field around a wind turbine at the yaw angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. The angle of attack and the relative velocity of the spanwise sections of the blade were extracted with the reference points method. By analyzing the pressure distribution and the flow characteristics of the blade surface, the flow mechanism of the blade surface in the yawed condition was discussed. The results showed that the variations of the angle of attack and the relative velocity were related to the azimuth angle and the radius in the… More >

  • Open Access


    A Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Yaw Operation Control in Wind Power Plants

    Lisha Shang*, Yajuan Jia, Liming Zheng, Erna Shi, Min Sun

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.18, No.3, pp. 511-519, 2022, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2022.017920

    Abstract A genetic algorithm is proposed to optimize the yaw control system used for the stable and efficient operation of turbines in wind power plants. In particular, the factors that produce yaw static deviation are analyzed. Then, the sought optimization method for the yaw static deviation of the wind turbine is implemented by using a lidar wind meter in the engine room in order to solve the low accuracy problem caused by yaw static deviation. It is shown that fuzzy control can overcome problematic factors such as the randomness of wind direction and track the change of wind direction accurately. Power… More >

  • Open Access


    Analysis of Near-Wake Deflection Characteristics of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Tower under Yaw State

    Zhen Liu1,3, Jianwen Wang1,2,*, Fuzhong Bai3, Caifeng Wen1,2, Yunchao Du1

    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.6, pp. 1627-1640, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.016357

    Abstract The yaw of the horizontal axis wind turbine results in the deflection of the wake flow field of the tower. The reasonable layout of wind farm can reduce the power loss of the downstream wind turbine generators due to the blocking effect of the upstream wake flow and increase the output power of the whole wind farm. However, there is still much space for further research. In this paper, experimental research is conducted on the near-wake deflection characteristics of wind turbine tower under yaw state, expecting the effect of throwing away a brick in order to get a gem. In… More >

  • Open Access


    Research on Direct Yaw Moment Control Strategy of Distributed-Drive Electric Vehicle Based on Joint Observer

    Quan Min1, Min Deng1, Zichen Zheng2,*, Shu Wang2, Xianyong Gui3, Haichuan Zhang2

    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 853-874, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014515

    Abstract Combined with the characteristics of the distributed-drive electric vehicle and direct yaw moment control, a double-layer structure direct yaw moment controller is designed. The upper additional yaw moment controller is constructed based on model predictive control. Aiming at minimizing the utilization rate of tire adhesion and constrained by the working characteristics of motor system and brake system, a quadratic programming active set was designed to optimize the distribution of additional yaw moments. The road surface adhesion coefficient has a great impact on the reliability of direct yaw moment control, for which joint observer of vehicle state parameters and road surface… More >

  • Open Access


    Model Predictive Yaw Control Using Fuzzy-Deduced Weighting Factor for Large-Scale Wind Turbines

    Shuowang Zhang1, Lingxiang Huang1,*, Dongran Song2,*, Ke Xu1, Xuebing Yang1, Xiaoping Song1

    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.2, pp. 237-250, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014269

    Abstract Yaw control system plays an important role in helping large-scale horizontal wind turbines capture the wind energy. To track the stochastic and fast-changing wind direction, the nacelle is rotated by the yaw control system. Therein, a difficulty consists in the variation speed of the wind direction much faster than the rotation speed of the nacelle. To deal with this difficulty, model predictive control has been recently proposed in the literature, in which the previewed wind direction is employed into the predictive model, and the estimated captured energy and yaw actuator usage are two contradictive objectives. Since the performance of the… More >

  • Open Access


    An Investigation into the Effects of the Reynolds Number on High-Speed Trains Using a Low Temperature Wind Tunnel Test Facility

    Yundong Han1, Dawei Chen1, Shaoqing Liu1, Gang Xu2

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 1-19, 2020, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2020.06525

    Abstract A series of tests have been conducted using a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel to study the effect of Reynolds number (Re) on the aerodynamic force and surface pressure experienced by a high speed train. The test Reynolds number has been varied from 1 million to 10 million, which is the highest Reynolds number a wind tunnel has ever achieved for a train test. According to our results, the drag coefficient of the leading car decreases with higher Reynolds number for yaw angles up to 30º. The drag force coefficient drops about 0.06 when Re is raised from 1 million to 10… More >

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