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  • Open Access


    The Use of Single-Phase Immersion Cooling by Using Two Types of Dielectric Fluid for Data Center Energy Savings

    Nugroho Agung Pambudi*, Awibi Muhamad Yusuf, Alfan Sarifudin

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 275-286, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017356

    Abstract Data centers are recognized as one of the most important aspects of the fourth industrial revolution since conventional data centers are inefficient and have dependency on high energy consumption, in which the cooling is responsible for 40% of the usage. Therefore, this research proposes the immersion cooling method to solving the high energy consumption of data centers by cooling its component using two types of dielectric fluids. Four stages of experimental methods are used, such as fluid types, cooling effectiveness, optimization, and durability. Furthermore, benchmark software is used to measure the CPU maximum work with the temperature data performed for… More >

  • Open Access


    Impact of Flow Rate in Integration with Solar Radiation on Color and COD Removal in Dye Contaminated Textile Industry Wastewater: Optimization Study

    Pradeep K. Majhi1, Rifat Azam1, Richa Kothari2,*, Naveen Kumar Arora1, V. V. Tyagi3

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 419-427, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016973

    Abstract Dyes are an integral part of the dying industry and have significantly resulted in environmental pollution by altering the standard water quality after their discharge into the water bodies. The culprits behind the altered water quality are the pretreatment chemicals used during dying manufacturing processes. Various advanced treatment methods using conventional and advanced treatment options including solar energy have been put forth by researchers for the treatment of the dying effluents but, these methods have not proved significantly considerable. Therefore, the present study intends to check the efficiency of solar parabolic trough collector for treating the dying effluents in terms… More >

  • Open Access


    Research on Flashover Voltage Prediction of Catenary Insulator Based on CaSO4 Pollution with Different Mass Fraction

    Sihua Wang1,2, Junjun Wang1,2,*, Lijun Zhou1,2, Long Chen1,2, Lei Zhao1,2

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 219-236, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016899


    Pollution flashover accidents occur frequently in railway OCS in saline-alkali areas. To accurately predict the pollution flashover voltage of insulators, a pollution flashover warning should be made in advance. According to the operating environment of insulators along the Qinghai-Tibet railway, the pollution flashover experiments were designed for the cantilever composite insulator FQBG-25/12. Through the experiments, the flashover voltage under the influence of soluble contaminant density (SCD) of different pollution components, non-soluble deposit density (NSDD), temperature (T), and atmospheric pressure (P) was obtained. On this basis, the GA-BP neural network prediction model was established. P, SCD, NSDD, CaSO4 mass fraction (w(CaSO4)),… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of Flow Field Geometry on Hydrodynamics of Flow in Redox Flow Battery

    M. Narendra Kumar1,*, S. Manoj Kumar2, G. C. Vijayakumar1, K. Kadirgama3,4, M. Samykano5, Krishna Venkatesh1, H. B. Murlidhara1

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 201-217, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016597

    Abstract This study computationally investigates the hydrodynamics of different serpentine flow field designs for redox flow batteries, which considers the Poiseuille flow in the flow channel and the Darcy flow porous substrate. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results of the in-house developed code based on Finite Volume Method (FVM) for conventional serpentine flow field (CSFF) agreed well with those obtained via experiment. The deviation for pressure drop was less than 5.1% for all the flow rates, thus proving the present CFD analysis’s validity on the modified variation of serpentine flow fields. Modified serpentine flow field-2 (MSFF2) design provided least pressure drop across… More >

  • Open Access


    Initiation Mechanism of Transverse Cracks in Wind Turbine Blade Trailing Edge

    Jinghua Wang1, Leian Zhang1, Xuemei Huang1,*, Jinfeng Zhang2, Chengwei Yuan1

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 407-418, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016439

    Abstract Transverse crack often occurs in the trailing edge region of the blade when subjected to the excessive edgewise fatigue load. In this paper a refined model was established through local mesh refinement methods in order to investigate the initiation mechanism of crack and its extension in blade trailing edge. The material stress around the crack in trailing edge region under different thicknesses is calculated based on the fracture mechanics theory. The factors affecting the fatigue robustness of blade trailing edge are concluded by investigating the results of finite element analysis and coupons test. Compared with the laminate, the lower fatigue… More >

  • Open Access


    A Low-Cost, Real-Time Rooftop IoT-Based Photovoltaic (PV) System for Energy Management and Home Automation

    Muhammad Uzair*, Salah Al-Kafrawi, Karam Al-Janadi, Ibrahim Al-Bulushi

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 83-101, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016411

    Abstract This work discusses the importance of monitoring and energy management of green energy resources in order to minimize the negative impacts of electricity generation by regular power plants. The paper introduces a highly efficient, low-cost rooftop photovoltaics (PV) solar panel system which can provide monitoring, controlling and automation. The proposed system is based on Internet of Things (IoT) and can be used to control different utilities in any premises automatically or set by the user-defined priority list, as compared to the existing IoT-based PV systems which can only perform monitoring and maintenance of the PV panels or only certain parameters,… More >

  • Open Access


    Field Investigation and Comparison Analysis of Low-Grade Heat Pump Technologies in Building Space Heating Projects

    Yanxue Li1,*, Weijun Gao1,2, Xiaoyi Zhang2, Wenya Xu1, Yingjun Ruan3, Yinzhong Wang4

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 63-81, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016209

    Abstract The building sector contributes a large ratio of final energy consumption, and improving building energy efficiency is expected to play a significant role in mitigating its carbon dioxide emission. Herein, we collected the on-site measurement data to investigate the techno-economic performances of different heat pump types that exist in building space heating projects in Qingdao, China. An in-depth analysis revealed the temperature variations of measured low-grade heat sources over the whole heating supply period, and urban sewage water shows high stable heat energy quality compared with seawater and geothermal heat resources. Operational behaviors including cycling inlet and outlet temperature of… More >

  • Open Access


    Development of Transient Electric Field Radiation Simulation Device during Gas Insulation Switch Operation

    Wei Shen1, Sen Wang1, Xuanxiang Zhao2, Haotian Zhang2, Shuo Cao3, Lijian Zhang2, Hao Yang2,*, Xixiang Wang4, Lei Lei4

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 371-385, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016141

    Abstract In gas insulation switch (GIS) substation, secondary devices such as line monitoring devices are placed in the switching field, and these electronic devices are vulnerable to transient electromagnetic interference caused by switching operation. In order to facilitate the measurement and research of electromagnetic disturbance data under different working conditions, a simulation test device is developed in this paper, which can be used to simulate electromagnetic disturbance of GIS substation sensor and secondary device port under switch operation. A four-channel parallel gas switch was designed, and the main characteristic parameters of electromagnetic disturbance generated by the simulation device were measured by… More >

  • Open Access


    A Review of Research Status and Scientific Problems of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    Zhen Lei1, Xinbao Wang2,*, Shuni Zhou3, Zekun Wang2, Tengyuan Wang2, Yingjian Yang2

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 123-143, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016034

    Abstract With the continuous utilization of offshore wind resources, the installation depth and capacity of offshore wind turbines are increasing. In order to meet construction requirements of renewable energy, offshore wind farms are bound to develop further and deeper into the sea. As a result, a novel kind of power generation equipment, Floating Offshore Wind Turbines (FOWT), emerges as the times require. Consequently, this paper provides an objective comment on some key scientific difficulties. Firstly, The statistics and forecast of the market demand and installed capacity of offshore wind energy show a steady growth. After that, the advantages of constructing FOWT… More >

  • Open Access


    Enhanced Atom Search Optimization Based Optimal Control Parameter Tunning of PMSG for MPPT

    Xin He1, Ping Wei2, Xiaoyan Gong1, Xiangfei Meng3, Dong Shan4, Jiawei Zhu5,*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 145-161, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.015910

    Abstract For the past few years, wind energy is the most popular non-traditional resource among renewable energy resources and it’s significant to make full use of wind energy to realize a high level of generating power. Moreover, diverse maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods have been designed for varying speed operation of wind energy conversion system (WECS) applications to obtain optimal power extraction. Hence, a novel and meta-heuristic technique, named enhanced atom search optimization (EASO), is designed for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based WECS, which can be employed to track the maximum power point. One of the most promising… More >

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