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Lemniscate of Leaf Function

Kazunori Shinohara*

Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Daido University, 10-3 Takiharu-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya, 457-8530, Japan

* Corresponding Author: Kazunori Shinohara. Email:

Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences 2021, 126(1), 275-292.


A lemniscate is a curve defined by two foci, F1 and F2. If the distance between the focal points of F1F2 is 2a (a: constant), then any point P on the lemniscate curve satisfy the equation PF1 · PF2 = a2. Jacob Bernoulli first described the lemniscate in 1694. The Fagnano discovered the double angle formula of the lemniscate (1718). The Euler extended the Fagnano’s formula to a more general addition theorem (1751). The lemniscate function was subsequently proposed by Gauss around the year 1800. These insights were summarized by Jacobi as the theory of elliptic functions. A leaf function is an extended lemniscate function. Some formulas of leaf functions have been presented in previous papers; these included the addition theorem of this function and its application to nonlinear equations. In this paper, the geometrical properties of leaf functions at n = 2 and the geometric relation between the angle θ and lemniscate arc length l are presented using the lemniscate curve. The relationship between the leaf functions sleaf2 (l) and cleaf2 (l) is derived using the geometrical properties of the lemniscate, similarity of triangles, and the Pythagorean theorem. In the literature, the relation equation for sleaf2 (l) and cleaf2 (l) (or the lemniscate functions, sl (l) and cl (l)) has been derived analytically; however, it is not derived geometrically.


Cite This Article

Shinohara, K. (2021). Lemniscate of Leaf Function. CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, 126(1), 275–292.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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