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Damage Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structures through Damage Indices: A State-of-the-Art Review

D. A. Makhloof, A. R. Ibrahim, Xiaodan Ren*

College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China

* Corresponding Author: Xiaodan Ren. Email:

Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences 2021, 128(3), 849-874.


Due to the developments of computer science and technology in recent years, computer models and numerical simulations for large and complicated structures can be done. Among the vast information and results obtained from the analysis and simulations, the damage performance is of great importance since this damage might cause enormous losses for society and humanity, notably in cases of severe damage occurring. One of the most effective tools to handle the results about the damage performance of the structure is the damage index (DI) together with the damage states, which are used to correlate the damage indices with the damage that occurred in the actual structures. Numbers of damage indices proposed and developed rely on the fact that the damage causes noticeable changes in the structural and dynamic properties of the structural components or the whole structure. Therefore, this study presents a comprehensive review of the damage assessment of Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures. It presents step by step the development of the damage indices that are most widely used to estimate the performance of structural components in the structure and subsequently assess the damage degree of such these structures either based on the structural properties or dynamic properties of the structure. Also, several damage states have been introduced to estimate the performance level of the structure. Finally, case studies, methodologies, and applications on the damage assessment of RC structures are reviewed and presented.


Cite This Article

Makhloof, D. A., Ibrahim, A. R., Ren, X. (2021). Damage Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structures through Damage Indices: A State-of-the-Art Review. CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, 128(3), 849–874.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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