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Isolation and biological characterization of a basic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom

S.L. MARUÑAK*, L. LEIVA**, M.E. GARCIA DENEGRI*, P. TEIBLER*, O. ACOSTA DE PÉREZ*

* Cátedra de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE). Sargento Cabral 2139, Corrientes, Argentina.
** Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE). Avenida Libertad 5470, 3400 Corrientes, Argentina.
Address correspondence to: Dra. Ofelia Acosta de Perez. Cátedra de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE). Sargento Cabral 2139. (3400) Corrientes, ARGENTINA. E-mail: patmed@vet.unne.edu.ar

BIOCELL 2007, 31(3), 355-364. https://doi.org/10.32604/biocell.2007.31.355

Abstract

A phospholipase A2 has been isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom from snakes that inhabit the northeast region of Argentina. The present study describes in vivo and in vitro biological activities of phospholipase A2 from B. jararacussu as well as isolation details of its. Venom was obtained by milking of adult snakes which were housing in wood reptile cages of varying dimensions in heated (20–30ºC) rooms. Snakes received a weekly diet of mice and water was available ad libitum for drinking and soaking. The enzyme was purified by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-75 column followed by ion exchange chromatography on a SP-Sephadex C25 column. The major peak belonging to proteins was retained in the cation exchanger and then eluted using a concentration gradient of KCl that exhibited phospholipase activity.
This basic PLA2 consists of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 15.6 kDa. It had a high indirect hemolytic activity and produced a significant paw edema reaction in mice. The enzyme showed a low lethality (LD50 148.6 µg) when was administered i.p. but exhibited elevated myotoxic effects in vivo by increasing plasma CK activity of injected mice, corroborated results by the histological observations of samples of gastrocnemius muscle. Myonecrosis is the result of intense destruction of muscular fibers that involves local infiltration of inflammatory cells and leads to the highest peak of CK level just after 1 hour mice injection. Moreover, the isolated enzyme showed anticoagulant activity, evaluated on sheep platelet-poor plasma which recalcification time was prolonged after incubation with the isolated phospholipase A2 . These findings showed that this phospholipase, isolated by only two simple chromatographic steps, possesses high edematogenic and myotoxic activities. However, despite the low lethal activity, this enzyme would contribute markedly to the pathophysiology of the bothropic envenomation.

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MARUÑAK, S., LEIVA, L., DENEGRI, M. G., TEIBLER, P., ACOSTA, O. (2007). Isolation and biological characterization of a basic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom. BIOCELL, 31(3), 355–364.

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