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Correlations among core species corresponding to the clinical staging of periodontitis

1 Central Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, National Center of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, National Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterials and Digital Medical Devices, Beijing, China
2 Department of Periodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China
3 Second Clinical Division, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China
4 Department of Geriatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China
* Corresponding Authors: XIAOPEI CHI. Email: ; YIFEI ZHANG. Email:

BIOCELL 2023, 47(2), 431-439.

Received 15 June 2022; Accepted 08 August 2022; Issue published 18 November 2022


The correlation between microbiota plays a vital role in the progression of periodontal disease. This study investigated the in situ interaction networks between periodontal pathogens in periodontal and peri-implant disease. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Pearson’s correlation coefficients to quantify the copy numbers and correlations of four oral core species—Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Streptococcus gordonii—from 80 subgingival sites (healthy and with periodontitis or gingivitis) in patients with periodontitis, and 68 subgingival sites (healthy and with periodontitis, gingivitis, peri-implantitis, or peri-implant mucositis) in patients with implants. The highest bacterial counts were observed for Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia at all the sites. Within the same cohorts, the bacterial loads were greater at diseased sites than at healthy sites. Bacterial counts did not differ among clinical sites in the same group (P > 0.05) but differed between periodontitis and peri-implant mucositis sites in the two groups. Porphyromonas gingivalis, F. nucleatum, and Prevotella intermedia had strong correlations at gingivitis and healthy sites and moderate correlations at periodontitis sites in patients with periodontitis. In patients with implants, Prevotella intermedia, F. nucleatum, and S. gordonii had strong correlations only at peri-implantitis sites. Also, based on metagenomic analysis, F. nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia were significantly correlated at the subgingival plaque in peri-implantitis and periodontitis samples. Our results suggest that variations in microbe-microbe interactions in subgingival plaque reflect changes in the progression of periodontal disease, providing a new perspective for understanding the mechanisms of periodontitis and peri-implantitis.


Quantitative polymerase chain reaction; Bacterial correlation; Bacterial counts

Cite This Article

ZHANG, Q., ZHEN, M., LI, P., CHI, X., ZHANG, Y. (2023). Correlations among core species corresponding to the clinical staging of periodontitis. BIOCELL, 47(2), 431–439.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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