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A population-based analysis of mortality in patients with Turner syndrome and hypoplastic left heart syndrome using the Texas Birth Defects Registry

Diego A. Lara1, Mary K. Ethen2, Mark A. Canfield2, Wendy N. Nembhard3, Shaine A. Morris1

1 Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
2 Birth Defects Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, TX, USA
3 University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children’s Research Institute, Little Rock, AR, USA

* Corresponding Author: Diego A. Lara, Ochsner Children's Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, USA. Email:

Congenital Heart Disease 2017, 12(1), 105-112.


Background: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is strongly associated with Turner syndrome (TS); outcome data when these conditions coexist is sparse. We aimed to investigate long-term survival and causes of death in this population.
Methods: The Texas Birth Defects Registry was queried for all live born infants with HLHS during 1999–2007. We used Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses to compare survival among patients with HLHS with TS (HLHS/TS+) to patients who had HLHS without genetic disorders or extracardiac birth defects (HLHS/TS–).
Results: Of the 542 patients with HLHS, 11 had TS (2.0%), 71 had other extracardiac birth defects or genetic disorders, and 463 had neither. The median follow-up time was 4.2 y (interquartile range [IQR] 2.1–6.5). Comparing those with HLHS/TS+ to HLHS/TS–, 100% versus 35% were female (P < .001), and median birth weight was 2140 g (IQR 1809–2650) versus 3196 g (IQR 2807–3540, P < .001). Neonatal mortality was 36% in HLHS/TS+ versus 27% in HLHS/TS– (log rank 5 0.431). Ten of the 11 TS+ patients died during the study period for cumulative mortality of 91% versus 50% (hazard ratio (HR) for TS+: 2.90, 95% CI 1.53–5.48). Six patients died prior to surgery, 5 underwent Stage 1 palliation (S1P), 3 died after S1P, 2 survived past S2P, and one of these died at age 19 mo. The underlying cause of death was listed as congenital heart disease on all the death certificates of HLHS/TS+ patients. In multivariable analysis controlling for low birth weight (<2500 g), TS remained associated with significantly increased cumulative mortality, although females without TS had higher mortality than males (HR for TS+ versus males: 2.42, 95% CI 1.24–4.73; HR for TS– females versus males: 1.41, 95% CI 1.08–1.83).
Conclusion: TS with HLHS is associated with significant mortality. The increased mortality in females without documented TS calls to question if TS is undetected in a portion of females with HLHS.


Cite This Article

Lara, D. A., Ethen, M. K., Canfield, M. A., Nembhard, W. N., Morris, S. A. (2017). A population-based analysis of mortality in patients with Turner syndrome and hypoplastic left heart syndrome using the Texas Birth Defects Registry. Congenital Heart Disease, 12(1), 105–112.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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