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Temporal relationship between instantaneous pressure gradients and peak-to-peak systolic ejection gradient in congenital aortic stenosis

Brian A. Boe1, Mark D. Norris2, Jeffrey D. Zampi2, Albert P. Rocchini2, Gregory J. Ensing2
1 Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Heart Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA
2 University of Michigan C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital Congenital Heart Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
* Corresponding Author: Brian Boe, The Heart Center, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 700 Children’s Drive, Columbus, OH 43205-2664. Email:

Congenital Heart Disease 2017, 12(6), 733-739.


Objective: We sought to identify a time during cardiac ejection when the instantaneous pressure gradient (IPG) correlated best, and near unity, with peak-to-peak systolic ejection gradient (PPSG) in patients with congenital aortic stenosis. Noninvasive echocardiographic measurement of IPG has limited correlation with cardiac catheterization measured PPSG across the spectrum of disease severity of congenital aortic stenosis. A major contributor is the observation that these measures are inherently different with a variable relationship dependent on the degree of stenosis.
Design: Hemodynamic data from cardiac catheterizations utilizing simultaneous pressure measurements from the left ventricle (LV) and ascending aorta (AAo) in patients with congenital valvar aortic stenosis was retrospectively reviewed over the past 5 years. The cardiac cycle was standardized for all patients using the percentage of total LV ejection time (ET). Instantaneous gradient at 5% intervals of ET were compared to PPSG using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis.
Results: A total of 22 patients underwent catheterization at a median age of 13.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 10.3-18.0) and median weight of 51.1 kg (IQR 34.2-71.6). The PPSG was 46.5 ± 12.6 mm Hg (mean ± SD) and correlated suboptimally with the maximum and mean IPG. The midsystolic IPG (occurring at 50% of ET) had the strongest correlation with the PPSG (PPSG = 0:97 (IPG50%)–1:12, R2 = 0.88), while the IPG at 55% of ET was closest to unity (PPSG = 0:997 (IPG55%)–1:17, R2 = 0.87).
Conclusions: The commonly measured maximum and mean IPG are suboptimal estimates of the PPSG in congenital aortic stenosis. Using catheter-based data, IPG at 50%–55% of ejection correlates well with PPSG. This may allow for a more accurate estimation of PPSG via noninvasive assessment of IPG.


aortic stenosis, catheterization, congenital heart disease, echocardiography

Cite This Article

Boe, B. A., Norris, M. D., Zampi, J. D., Rocchini, A. P., Ensing, G. J. (2017). Temporal relationship between instantaneous pressure gradients and peak-to-peak systolic ejection gradient in congenital aortic stenosis. Congenital Heart Disease, 12(6), 733–739.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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