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Predictors of inadequate initial echocardiography in suspected Kawasaki disease: Criteria for sedation

Raymond P. Lorenzoni III1, Jaeun Choi2, Nadine F. Choueiter3, Iona M. Munjal1, Chhavi Katyal4, Kenan W. D. Stern3

1 Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York, USA
2 Department of Epidemiology & Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
3 Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York, USA
4 Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York, USA

* Corresponding Author: Kenan W.D. Stern, MD, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1201, New York, NY 10029. Email: email

Congenital Heart Disease 2018, 13(3), 470-475. https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12598

Abstract

Objective: Kawasaki disease is the primary cause of acquired pediatric heart disease in developed nations. Timely diagnosis of Kawasaki disease incorporates transthoracic echocardiography for visualization of the coronary arteries. Sedation improves this visualization, but not without risks and resource utilization. To identify potential sedation criteria for suspected Kawasaki disease, we analyzed factors associated with diagnostically inadequate initial transthoracic echocardiography performed without sedation.
Design: This retrospective review of patients < 18 years old undergoing initial transthoracic echocardiography for the inpatient evaluation of suspected Kawasaki disease from 2009 to 2015 occurred at a medium-sized urban children’s hospital. The primary outcome was diagnostically inadequate transthoracic echocardiography without sedation due to poor visualization of the coronary arteries, determined by review of clinical records. The associations of the primary outcome with demographics, Kawasaki disease type, laboratory data, fever, and antipyretic or intravenous immunoglobulin treatment prior to transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed.
Results: In total, 112 patients (44% female, median age 2.1 years, median BSA 0.54 m2 ) underwent initial transthoracic echocardiography for suspected Kawasaki disease, and 99 were not sedated. Transthoracic echocardiography was diagnostically inadequate in 19 out of these 99 patients (19.2%) and was associated with age ≤ 2.0 years, weight ≤ 10.0 kg, and antipyretic use ≤ 6 hours before transthoracic echocardiography (all P < .05). These variables did not reach statistical significance on multivariable analysis.
Conclusions: Patients ≤ 2.0 years or ≤ 10.0 kg or those recently receiving antipyretics, potentially a surrogate for irritability, were associated with diagnostically inadequate transthoracic echocardiography during the inpatient workup of Kawasaki disease. These factors should be considered when deciding which patients to sedate for initial Kawasaki disease transthoracic echocardiography.

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APA Style
III, R.P.L., Choi, J., Choueiter, N.F., Munjal, I.M., Katyal, C. et al. (2018). Predictors of inadequate initial echocardiography in suspected kawasaki disease: criteria for sedation. Congenital Heart Disease, 13(3), 470-475. https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12598
Vancouver Style
III RPL, Choi J, Choueiter NF, Munjal IM, Katyal C, Stern KWD. Predictors of inadequate initial echocardiography in suspected kawasaki disease: criteria for sedation. Congeni Heart Dis. 2018;13(3):470-475 https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12598
IEEE Style
R.P.L. III, J. Choi, N.F. Choueiter, I.M. Munjal, C. Katyal, and K.W.D. Stern "Predictors of inadequate initial echocardiography in suspected Kawasaki disease: Criteria for sedation," Congeni. Heart Dis., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 470-475. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12598



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