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Bioprosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis: Incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes

Brian Robichaud1, Garick Hill2, Scott Cohen1,3, Ronald Woods4, Michael Earing1,3, Peter Frommelt1, Salil Ginde1,3

1 Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
2 Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
4 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

* Corresponding Author: Salil Ginde, Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, 9000 W. Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226. Email: email

Congenital Heart Disease 2018, 13(5), 734-739.


Background: Pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) is a common operation in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). As survival with CHD improves, infective endo‐ carditis (IE) is a growing complication after PVR. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of IE after surgical PVR in patients with CHD at our institution.
Methods: Retrospective analysis of all cases of surgical PVR performed at Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin between 1975 and 2016 was performed. All cases of IE after PVR were identified and clinical and imaging data were obtained by review of medical records.
Results: Out of 924 surgical PVRs, there were 19 (2%) cases of IE. The incidence of IE after surgical PVR was 333 cases per 100 000 person‐years. The median age at diag‐ nosis of IE was 21 years (range = 1.2‐34 years) and the median time from PVR to di‐ agnosis of IE was 9.4 years. The overall freedom from IE after PVR was 99.1%, 96.9%, and 93.4%, at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. There was no significant difference in freedom from IE based on valve type, including bovine jugular vein grafts. Patients with IE were more likely to have had a history of multiple PVRs, while length of fol‐ low‐up after PVR, age at time of PVR, and gender were not significant risk factors. Eleven (58%) cases of IE required surgical intervention, while 8 (42%) were success‐ fully treated with intravenous antibiotics alone. There were no deaths and no recur‐ rences of IE after treatment.
Conclusion: The overall risk for IE after PVR is low. There was no association be‐ tween age or type of pulmonary valve and risk of IE. The majority of cases require surgical intervention, but in general the outcomes of IE after PVR are good with low mortality and risk of recurrence.


Cite This Article

Robichaud, B., Hill, G., Cohen, S., Woods, R., Earing, M. et al. (2018). Bioprosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis: Incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes. Congenital Heart Disease, 13(5), 734–739.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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