Home / Journals / CHD / Vol.13, No.5, 2018
  • Open Access

    EDITORIAL

    State of the art—patent ductus arteriosus


    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 645-645, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12689
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

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    ARTICLE

    Hemodynamic effects of ketamine in children with congenital heart disease and/or pulmonary hypertension

    Rohit S. Loomba1, Seth B. Gray2, Saul Flores3
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 646-654, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12662
    Abstract Introduction: Ketamine is a drug often used for procedural sedation or as adjunct agent for general sedation in children with congenital heart disease. In the clinical realm, there is often confusion regarding the effects of ketamine on hemodynamics, particularly pulmonary vascular resistance and systemic vascular resistance. We per‐ formed a meta‐analysis of studies investigating the effects of ketamine on hemodynamics.
    Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify studies characterizing the hemodynamic effects of ketamine in children with congenital heart disease. Studies were assessed for quality and those of satisfactory quality with pre‐ and postketa‐ mine hemodynamics for each patient… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Risk factors for hyperuricemia in congenital heart disease patients and its relation to cardiovascular death

    Juan Lizandro Rodríguez‐Hernández1, Fayna Rodríguez‐González2, Marta Riaño‐Ruiz3, Efrén Martínez‐Quintana1,4
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 655-662, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12620
    Abstract Introduction: Hyperuricemia has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors but it remains controversial if uric acid is an independent predictor of cardiac mortality.
    Methods: A total of 503 CHD patients (457 nonhypoxemic and 46 hypoxemic) and 772 control patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. Demographic, clinical, and analytical data [serum uric acid and 24h urine uric acid levels, N‐terminal pro‐B‐type natriuretic peptide (NT‐pro‐BNP), and C‐reactive‐protein (CRP) concentrations] were studied. Survivals curves to determine cardiac death and arterial thrombosis in CHD patients were also examined.
    Results: Noncyanotic and cyanotic CHD patients had significant higher serum uric acid concentration (5.2 ± 1.5 vs 4.9 ± 1.3mg/dL, P = .007 and… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Coronary artery intimal thickening and ventricular dynamics in pediatric heart transplant recipients

    Anita T. Cote1,2, Martin Hosking3, Christine Voss1,3, Derek G. Human3, George G. S. Sandor1,3, Kevin C. Harris1,3
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 663-670, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12629
    Abstract Objective: Pediatric heart transplant recipients are at risk of posttransplant coronary artery disease known as cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), and also may develop diastolic dysfunction. As CAV begins with a process of progressive intimal thickening, these occult diffuse changes may be detected using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We hypothesized that the development of CAV, as identified via OCT, may be a mechanism of declining ventricular function. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to assess coronary artery intimal thickening and LV strain in children who have undergone heart transplantation.
    Methods: In 17 children, we analyzed OCT images for coronary intima… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Mitochondrial DNA mutation “m.3243A>G”—Heterogeneous clinical picture for cardiologists (“m.3243A>G”: A phenotypic chameleon)

    Katharina Niedermayr1, Gerhard Pölzl2, Sabine Scholl‐Bürgi1, Christine Fauth3, Ulrich Schweigmann1, Edda Haberlandt1, Ursula Albrecht1, Manuela Zlamy1, Wolfgang Sperl4, Johannes A. Mayr4, Daniela Karall1
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 671-677, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12634
    Abstract Objective: In general, a mitochondrial disorder is diagnosed on the basis of symptom combinations and confirmed by genetic findings. However, patients carrying the m.3243A>G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA leucine 1 (MT‐TL1) do not always meet all the proposed criteria for the most frequently encountered mitochondrial syndrome “MELAS,” an acronym for Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and at least one Stroke‐like episode. We here present various phenotypic characteristics of the mitochondrial mutation m.3243A>G with particular focus on cardiac manifestations.
    Methods and Results: We followed nine patients (1 month to 68 years old; median 42 years; four female and five male) from… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Anticoagulation practices in adults with congenital heart disease and atrial arrhythmias in Switzerland

    Ketina Arslani1*, Lukas Notz1*, Marzena Zurek1, Matthias Greutmann2, Markus Schwerzmann3, Judith Bouchardy4, Reto Engel5, Christine Attenhofer Jost6, Daniel Tobler1
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 678-684, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12627
    Abstract Background: In adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) and atrial arrhythmias, recommendations for thromboprophylaxis are vague and evidence is lacking. We aimed to identify factors that influence decision-making in daily practice.
    Methods: From the Swiss Adult Congenital HEart disease Registry (SACHER) we identified 241 patients with either atrial fibrillation (Afib) or atrial flutter/intraatrial reentrant tachycardia (Aflut/ IART). The mode of anticoagulation was reviewed. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors that were associated with oral anticoagulation therapy.
    Results: Compared with patients with Aflut/IART, patients with Afib were older (51 ± 16.1 vs 37 ± 16 years, P < .001)… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Patients with congenital heart defect and their families support genetic heart research

    Paul C. Helm1, Ulrike M. M. Bauer1,2, Hashim Abdul‐Khaliq2,3, Helmut Baumgartner1,4, Hans‐Heiner Kramer5, Christian Schlensak2,7, Thomas Pickardt1, Anne‐Karin Kahlert5,6*, Marc‐Phillip Hitz5*
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 685-689, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12630
    Abstract Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects up to 1% of live births the etiol‐ ogy remains relatively poorly understood. Thus, cardiac research is needed to under‐ stand the underlying pathomechanisms ofthe disease.About51 000CHDpatients are registered in the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects (NRCHD). Patients and relatives were interviewed online about their willingness to support ge‐ netic heart research in order to donate a biological sample.
    Methods: Study participants were recruited via the database of the NRCHD. Seven thousand nine hundred eighty‐nine patients were invited to participate in the study. Participants have been asked to rate three questions on… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Mortality trends from congenital malformations of the heart and the great vessels in children and adults in the seven socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2000‐2015

    Juan Jesús Sánchez‐Barriga
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 690-699, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12631
    Abstract Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) represents a global health problem. In Mexico, in children <1 year of age it is the second cause of mortality. The aim was to determine mortality trends from CHD and the great vessels in children and adults nationwide, by state and socioeconomic region.
    Methods: Records of mortality associated to CHD and the great vessels for 2000‐2015 were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography. This information is collected from death certificates issued nationwide. International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes corresponding to the basic cause of death from CHD and the great vessels.… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 and 4 years in children with congenital heart disease

    Cheryl L. Brosig1,2, Laurel Bear1,2, Sydney Allen1, Pippa Simpson1, Liyun Zhang1, Michele Frommelt1,2, Kathleen A. Mussatto2
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 700-705, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12632
    Abstract Background and Objectives: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for neurodevelopmental (ND) delays. The purpose of this study is to compare the ND testing results of children with CHD at 2 and 4 years of age and determine if rates of ND delays change over time.
    Methods: Children with CHD completed the Bayley Scales of Infant Development‐III (BSID‐III) at 2 years of age, and standardized neuropsychological measures at 4 years. Scores were compared with test norms and were classified as: average (within one SD of test mean); at risk (1‐2 SDs from the test mean); and delayed… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Incidence of aspiration in infants with single‐ventricle physiology following hybrid procedure

    Jennifer P. Lundine1,2, Robert Dempster3,4, Kirby Carpenito5, Holly Miller‐Tate5, Wendelin Burdo‐Hartman4,6, Elizabeth Halpin2, Omar Khalid4,5
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 706-712, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12636
    Abstract Background: Swallowing dysfunction is a known complication for infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD), but few studies have examined swallowing outcomes following the hybrid procedure for stage 1 palliation in children with single ventricle physiology.
    Objectives: (1) Identify the incidence of aspiration in all infants with single ventricle physiology who underwent the hybrid procedure and (2) Compare results of clinical bedside and instrumental swallowing evaluations to examine the predictive value of a less invasive swallowing assessment for this population of high‐risk infants.
    Methods: This was a retrospective cohort chart review study. All patients with single‐ventricle physiology who underwent the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Diastolic velocity half time is associated with aortic coarctation gradient at catheterization independent of echocardiographic and clinical blood pressure gradients

    Adam B. Christopher1, Abraham Apfel2, Tao Sun2, Jackie Kreutzer1, David S. Ezon3
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 713-720, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12637
    Abstract Objective: The most accurate noninvasive parameter to predict whether a patient with aortic coarctation will meet interventional criteria at catheterization remains elusive. We aim to determine the best independent echocardiographic predictors of a coarctation peak‐to‐peak pressure gradient ≥20 mm Hg at catheterization, the ac‐ cepted threshold for intervention.
    Design: Retrospective query of our catheterization database from 1/2007 to 7/2016 for the diagnostic code of aortic coarctation was performed. Multiple echocardio‐ graphic measurements and blood pressure gradients prior to cardiac catheterization were collected. Univariate correlation of variables with the continuous catheteriza‐ tion peak were calculated using Spearman’s rho. Univariate association with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hospital resource utilization and presence of advance directives at the end of life for adults with congenital heart disease

    Jill M. Steiner1, James N. Kirkpatrick1, Susan R. Heckbert2, James Sibley3, James A. Fausto3, Ruth A. Engelberg3, J. Randall Curtis3
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 721-727, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12638
    Abstract Objective: Overall health care resource utilization by adults with congenital heart disease has increased dramatically in the past two decades, yet little is known about utilization patterns at the end of life. The objective of this study is to better under‐ stand the patterns and influences on end‐of‐life care intensity for adults with con‐ genital heart disease.
    Methods: We identified a sample of adults with congenital heart disease (n = 65), cancer (n = 10 784), or heart failure (n = 3809) who died between January 2010 and December 2015, cared for in one multi‐hospital health care system. We used… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identifying self‐reported neurocognitive deficits in the adult with congenital heart disease using a simple screening tool

    Ashley Brunmeier1,2, Michael P Reis3, Michael G. Earing1,2, Laura Umfleet 4, Salil Ginde1,2, Peter J. Bartz1,2, Scott Cohen1,2
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 728-733, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12646
    Abstract Objective: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and adults with acquired heart disease are at an increased risk of neurocognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of self‐reported neurocognitive impair‐ ment and its risk factors in the adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population.
    Design: The Wisconsin Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program recently began screening ACHD patients to identify those with significant self‐perceived neurocog‐ nitive impairments. Screening consists of using a validated neuro‐oncology screening instrument that has been modified for the ACHD population. Patients who answer this survey in a predetermined fashion consistent with significant self‐perceived… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bioprosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis: Incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes

    Brian Robichaud1, Garick Hill2, Scott Cohen1,3, Ronald Woods4, Michael Earing1,3, Peter Frommelt1, Salil Ginde1,3
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 734-739, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12639
    Abstract Background: Pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) is a common operation in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). As survival with CHD improves, infective endo‐ carditis (IE) is a growing complication after PVR. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of IE after surgical PVR in patients with CHD at our institution.
    Methods: Retrospective analysis of all cases of surgical PVR performed at Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin between 1975 and 2016 was performed. All cases of IE after PVR were identified and clinical and imaging data were obtained by review of medical records.
    Results:More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Narrative analysis of adults with complex congenital heart disease: Childhood experiences and their lifelong reverberations

    Michelle Keir1, Barbara Bailey1, Angela Lee1, Adrienne H. Kovacs1,2, S. Lucy Roche1,3
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 740-747, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12647
    Abstract Background: With access to surgical care, >90% of today’s infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) will reach adulthood. During childhood, survivors accrue a wealth of health care experience and develop strategies for navigating life with a chronic disease.
    Methods: Seeking to learn from this individualized process, we invited adults with complex CHD to participate in narrative analysis—an established qualitative research method for studying how individuals derive meaning from their personal stories. Audio recordings of 2‐4 hour free‐form interviews were transcribed and iteratively analyzed to identify common themes and detect similarities or differences in language, viewpoint and interpretation. Recruitment continued until… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Prenatal detection of critical cardiac outflow tract anomalies remains suboptimal despite revised obstetrical imaging guidelines

    Heather Y. Sun1, James A. Proudfoot2, Rachel T. McCandless1
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 748-756, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12648
    Abstract Background: Fetal echocardiography can accurately diagnose critical congenital heart disease prenatally, but relies on referrals from abnormalities identified on routine obstetrical ultrasounds. Critical congenital heart disease that is frequently missed due to inadequate outflow tract imaging includes anomalies such as truncus arteriosus, double outlet right ventricle, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary stenosis, and aortic stenosis.
    Objective: This study evaluated the prenatal detection rate of critical outflow tract anomalies in a single urban pediatric hospital before and after “AIUM Practice Guideline for the Performance of Obstetric Ultrasound Examinations,” which incorporated outflow tract imaging.
    Design: Infants with outflow… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Interstage outcomes in single ventricle patients undergoing hybrid stage 1 palliation

    Janet M. Simsic, Christina Phelps, Kristin Kirchner, Kirby‐Rose Carpenito, Robin Allen, Holly Miller‐Tate, Karen Texter, Mark Galantowicz
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 757-763, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12649
    Abstract Objective: Interstage readmissions are common in infants with single ventricle congenital heart disease undergoing staged surgical palliation. We retrospectively examined readmissions during the interstage period.
    Design: Retrospective analysis.
    Setting: The Heart Center at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.
    Patients: Newborns undergoing hybrid stage 1 palliation from January 2012 to December 2016 who survived to hospital discharge and were followed at our institution.
    Interventions: All patients underwent hybrid stage 1 palliation.
    Outcome Measures: Outcomes included (1) reason for interstage readmission; (2) feeding modality during interstage period; (3) major interstage adverse events; and (4) interstage mortality.
    Results: Study group comprised 57 patients.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    FibroSURE and elastography poorly predict the severity of liver fibrosis in Fontan-associated liver disease

    Jessica L. Schachter1, Manisha Patel2, Samuel R. Horton3, A. Mike Devane4, Alex Ewing5, Gary A. Abrams6
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 764-770, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12650
    Abstract Objective: As the population of patients with Fontan circulation surviving into adult‐ hood increases, hepatic cirrhosis has grown to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Early detection of advanced hepatic fibrosis is imperative for proper inter‐ vention and consideration for heart or combined heart/liver transplantation. Noninvasive biomarkers and elastography have been evaluated for their diagnostic utility with variable results in the Fontan population.
    Design: The cohort included 14 patients age 26.4 SD 7.5 who underwent Fontan surgery. All patients were evaluated with FibroSURE, shear wave elastography (SWE), hepatic duplex sonography, and liver biopsy. Liver fibrosis on biopsy was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Heart murmurs and echocardiography findings in the normal newborn nursery

    Michael E. Fenster1‡, John S. Hokanson2
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 771-775, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12651
    Abstract Objective: To determine the clinical findings and management implications of echocardiograms performed on infants with murmurs in the nursery.
    Design: Retrospective cohort study conducted from January 2008 through December 2015. Patients in the study were followed by chart review for up to 5 years. In addition, a survey of nursery providers was conducted in February 2016.
    Setting: A single community hospital associated with a university.
    Patients: All 26 573 infants who received care in the normal newborn nursery were eligible for inclusion in the study. Infants with echocardiograms were analyzed. The survey was sent by e‐mail to all 135 physicians… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Incidence and factors influencing the spontaneous closure of Fontan fenestration

    Sudheer R. Gorla1, Nataley K. Jhingoeri1, Abhishek Chakraborty1, Kishore R. Raja1, Ashish Garg1, Satinder Sandhu1, Eliot R. Rosenkranz2, Sethuraman Swaminathan1
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 776-781, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12652
    Abstract Introduction: The Fontan operation is the final stage of single ventricle palliation in patients with complex congenital heart disease. Fenestration in the Fontan conduit, providing an atrial level right to left shunt, has been shown to reduce early postoperative morbidity. However, there is limited data on the long‐term fate of this fenestration. The aim of this study is to define the rate of spontaneous closure of the fenestration in the Fontan conduit and factors predictive of the fate of the fenestration.
    Methods: This was a retrospective study reviewing the medical records of the patients who underwent fenestrated Fontan operation at… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Congenital coronary artery fistula: Presentation in the neonatal period and transcatheter closure

    Varun Aggarwal, Venkatachalam Mulukutla, Athar M. Qureshi, Henri Justino
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 782-787, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12653
    Abstract Background: Congenital coronary artery fistula is a rare coronary anomaly. Most commonly, such fistulae drain into the right side of the heart or the pulmonary artery. Children with coronary artery fistulae are generally asymptomatic, although they may have left ventricular enlargement in the setting of a moderate sized left to right shunt. Symptoms of congestive heart failure or ischemia are very rare in neonatal period, and suggest the presence of a very large shunt and/or coronary steal.
    Methods: Single center retrospective review of transcatheter intervention on coro‐ nary artery fistulae presenting with symptoms in the neonatal period from January 2000… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A qualitative assessment of pediatric cardiology core content: Comments from Kentucky trainees, pediatricians, and pediatric cardiologists

    Ashley E. Neal1, Elizabeth Lehto1, Karen Hughes Miller2, Erin Davis3, Craig Ziegler2
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 788-793, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12626
    Abstract Objective: The 2016 American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) content outline is comprehensive, including more than 50 cardiology-specific objectives within eight content areas. This study complements the quantitative analysis of a Kentucky-wide survey of trainees, pediatricians, and pediatric cardiologists asking them to identify “most important” cardiology content by analyzing their open-ended comments about “what should be added” and “why?” within these eight categories.
    Design, Methods, Outcome Measures: This cross-sectional study used an original, online survey instrument based on the 2016 ABP cardiology-specific objectives. We began an initial analysis of the qualitative data using Pandit’s version of Glaser and Strauss Grounded theory… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Strength in numbers: Crowdsourcing the most relevant literature in pediatric cardiology

    Joseph J. Knadler1, Daniel J. Penny1, Tyler H. Harris2, Gary D. Webb3, Antonio G. Cabrera1,4, William B. Kyle1
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 794-798, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12669
    Abstract Objective: The growing body of medical literature in pediatric cardiology has made it increasingly difficult for individual providers to stay abreast of the most current, meaningful articles to help guide practice. Crowdsourcing represents a collaborative process of obtaining information from a large group of individuals, typically from an online or web‐based community, and could serve a potential mechanism to pool indi‐ vidual efforts to combat this issue. This study aimed to utilize crowdsourcing as a novel way to generate a list of the most relevant, current publications in congenital heart disease, utilizing input from an international group of professionals in… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Efficacy of dexmedetomidine in prevention of junctional ectopic tachycardia and acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery: A meta‐analysis

    Xin Li MMed*, Chengxin Zhang*, Di Dai MMed, Haiyuan Liu, Shenglin Ge
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 799-807, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12674
    Abstract Objective: We conducted a meta‐analysis to evaluate the effects of prophylactic perioperative dexmedetomidine administration on postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) and acute kidney injury (AKI) in pediatric patients having under‐ gone cardiac surgery.
    Design: This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017083880). Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observa‐ tional cohort studies from its inception to March 2018. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies using the Jadad scale and Newcastle‐Ottawa score. Meta‐analysis was then conducted by RevMan… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cardiac morphology for the millennial cardiology fellow: Nomenclature and advances in morphologic imaging

    Shankar Baskar, Seth B. Gray, Erica L. Del Grippo, Onyekachukwu Osakwe, Adam W. Powell, Justin T. Tretter
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 808-810, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12675
    Abstract Cardiology fellows‐in‐training, both in adult and pediatric hospitals, need structured education in regards to congenital heart disease (CHD) nomenclature. With improved survival of patients with CHD, it is not uncommon for these patients to seek care in multiple adult and pediatric hospitals. A deep understanding of CHD nomenclature would aid in providing accurate medical and surgical care for these patients. In this forum, we share our experience with such structured education and also comment on recent advances in morphologic imaging that would aid in understanding the nomenclature. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Section on Cardiology and Cardiac Surger y Annual Meeting November 2-4, 2018 Orlando, Florida QI Abstract Presentations:

    Anoymous
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 811-876, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12693
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

  • Open Access

    EDITORIAL

    From the Chair of the AAP Section on Cardiology & Cardiac Surgery

    Christopher S. Snyder
    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 877-878, 2018, DOI:10.1111/chd.12697
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

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