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Cardiovascular risk factors in adults with coarctation of the aorta

Maria Fedchenko, Zacharias Mandalenakis, Helena Dellborg, Görel Hultsberg‐Olsson, Anna Björk, Peter Eriksson, Mikael Dellborg
Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden
* Corresponding Author: Maria Fedchenko, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Diagnosvägen 11, SE‐416 50 Gothenburg, Sweden. Email:

Congenital Heart Disease 2019, 14(4), 549-558. https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12785

Abstract

Background: The aging patient with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) faces the risk of developing atherosclerotic disease. Patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) are especially vulnerable because of an inherent high risk of developing hy‐ pertension. However, data on the prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the prevalence of traditional cardio‐ vascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle) in adult patients with CoA.
Methods: Patients with CoA who were registered at the ACHD clinic in Gothenburg were asked to participate in a comprehensive cardiovascular risk assessment. This assessment included a glucose tolerance test, cholesterol profile, ambulatory blood pressure measurements, and a lifestyle questionnaire.
Results: A total of 72 patients participated. The median age was 43.5 years and 58.3% were men. Sixty‐six (91.7%) patients had ≥one cardiovascular risk factor and 40.3% had ≥three risk factors. Three (4.2%) patients were newly diagnosed with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. More than half of the patients had hyperlipidemia (n = 42, 58.3%) and 35 patients (48.6%) were overweight or obese. Only three (4.2%) patients smoked regularly. Of the 60 patients who underwent 24‐hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement, 33 (55.0%) were hypertensive. Of the 30 patients with known hypertension only 9 (30.0%) had well‐controlled blood pressure on ambula‐ tory blood pressure measurement.
Conclusions: Cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CoA are prevalent. This may indicate a need for more aggressive screening strategies of traditional risk fac‐ tors to minimize the risk of these patients also developing atherosclerotic disease.

Keywords

cardiovascular risk factors, coarctation of the aorta, congenital heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension

Cite This Article

Fedchenko, M., Mandalenakis, Z., Dellborg, H., Hultsberg‐Olsson, G., Björk, A. et al. (2019). Cardiovascular risk factors in adults with coarctation of the aorta. Congenital Heart Disease, 14(4), 549–558.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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