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Industry 4.0: Architecture and Equipment Revolution

Ahmed Bashar Fakhri1, Saleem Latteef Mohammed1, Imran Khan2, Ali Safaa Sadiq3,4, Basem Alkazemi5, Prashant Pillai4, Bong Jun Choi6,*

1 Department of Medical Instrumentation Techniques Engineering, Electrical Engineering Technical College, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
3 School of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Wolverhempton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhempton, UK
4 Center of Artificial Intelligence Research and Optimization, Torrens University, Brisbane, Australia
5 Department of Computer Science, College of Computer & Information Systems, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
6 School of Computer Science and Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea

* Corresponding Author: Bong Jun Choi. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 66(2), 1175-1194.


The development of science and technology has led to the era of Industry 4.0. The core concept is the combination of “material and informationization”. In the supply chain and manufacturing process, the “material” of the physical entity world is realized by data, identity, intelligence, and information. Industry 4.0 is a disruptive transformation and upgrade of intelligent industrialization based on the Internet-of-Things and Big Data in traditional industrialization. The goal is “maximizing production efficiency, minimizing production costs, and maximizing the individual needs of human beings for products and services.” Achieving this goal will surely bring about a major leap in the history of the industry, which will lead to the “Fourth Industrial Revolution.” This paper presents a detailed discussion of industrial big data, strategic roles, architectures, characteristics, and four types of innovative business models that can generate profits for enterprises. The key revolutionary aspect of Industry 4.0 is explained, which is the equipment revolution. Six important attributes of equipment are explained under the Industry 4.0 perspective.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Fakhri, A.B., Mohammed, S.L., Khan, I., Sadiq, A.S., Alkazemi, B. et al. (2021). Industry 4.0: architecture and equipment revolution. Computers, Materials & Continua, 66(2), 1175-1194.
Vancouver Style
Fakhri AB, Mohammed SL, Khan I, Sadiq AS, Alkazemi B, Pillai P, et al. Industry 4.0: architecture and equipment revolution. Comput Mater Contin. 2021;66(2):1175-1194
IEEE Style
A.B. Fakhri et al., "Industry 4.0: Architecture and Equipment Revolution," Comput. Mater. Contin., vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 1175-1194. 2021.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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