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Autonomous Parking-Lots Detection with Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Using Machine Deep Learning Techniques

Kashif Iqbal1,2, Sagheer Abbas1, Muhammad Adnan Khan3,*, Atifa Athar4, Muhammad Saleem Khan1, Areej Fatima3, Gulzar Ahmad1

1 School of Computer Science, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan
2 Department of Computer Sciences, GC University, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan
3 Department of Computer Science, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan
4 Department of Computer Science, Comsats University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan

* Corresponding Author: Muhammad Adnan Khan. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 66(2), 1595-1612.


The rapid development and progress in deep machine-learning techniques have become a key factor in solving the future challenges of humanity. Vision-based target detection and object classification have been improved due to the development of deep learning algorithms. Data fusion in autonomous driving is a fact and a prerequisite task of data preprocessing from multi-sensors that provide a precise, well-engineered, and complete detection of objects, scene or events. The target of the current study is to develop an in-vehicle information system to prevent or at least mitigate traffic issues related to parking detection and traffic congestion detection. In this study we examined to solve these problems described by (1) extracting region-of-interest in the images (2) vehicle detection based on instance segmentation, and (3) building deep learning model based on the key features obtained from input parking images. We build a deep machine learning algorithm that enables collecting real video-camera feeds from vision sensors and predicting free parking spaces. Image augmentation techniques were performed using edge detection, cropping, refined by rotating, thresholding, resizing, or color augment to predict the region of bounding boxes. A deep convolutional neural network F-MTCNN model is proposed that simultaneously capable for compiling, training, validating and testing on parking video frames through video-camera. The results of proposed model employing on publicly available PK-Lot parking dataset and the optimized model achieved a relatively higher accuracy 97.6% than previous reported methodologies. Moreover, this article presents mathematical and simulation results using state-of-the-art deep learning technologies for smart parking space detection. The results are verified using Python, TensorFlow, OpenCV computer simulation frameworks.


Cite This Article

K. Iqbal, S. Abbas, M. Adnan Khan, A. Athar, M. Saleem Khan et al., "Autonomous parking-lots detection with multi-sensor data fusion using machine deep learning techniques," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 66, no.2, pp. 1595–1612, 2021.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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