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Evaluation of Pencil Lead Based Electrodes for Electrocardiogram Monitoring in Hot Spring

Ratha Yeu1, Namhui Ra2, Seong-A Lee3, Yunyoung Nam4,*

1 Department of ICT Convergence Rehabilitation Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, 31538, Korea
2 Department of ICT Convergence, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, 31538, Korea
3 Department of Occupational Therapy, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, 31538, Korea
4 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, 31538, Korea

* Corresponding Author: Yunyoung Nam. Email:

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and IoT based intelligent systems using high performance computing for Medical applications.)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 66(2), 1411-1425.


Electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes are conductive pads applied to the skin to measure cardiac activity. Ag/AgCl electrodes are the commercial product which widely used to obtain ECGs. When monitoring the ECG in a hot spring, Ag/AgCl electrodes must be waterproofed; however, this is time-consuming, and the adhesive may tear the skin on removal. For solving the problem, we developed the carbon pencil lead (CPL) electrodes for use in hot springs. Both CPL and Ag/AgCl electrodes were connected to ECG100C’s cables. The Performance was evaluated in three conditions as following: hot spring water with and without bubble, and in cold water. In each environment, the procedure was followed by three different protocols that are recording from the dry condition, hot spring water immersion with and without movement, post hot spring water condition. Under dry and wet conditions, both electrodes can obtain the waveform of the ECG signal in which all PQRST waves were identifiable. Nevertheless, the signal quality of both types of electrodes was different in water immersion with and without movement. The overall morphology obtained by Ag/AgCl electrodes was unstable higher than that of CPL electrodes in immersion without movement condition. The CPL electrodes provided better ECG waveform quality compared to Ag/AgCl electrodes in which the ECG signal had high waveforms distortion in water immersion with movement condition.


Cite This Article

R. Yeu, N. Ra, S. Lee and Y. Nam, "Evaluation of pencil lead based electrodes for electrocardiogram monitoring in hot spring," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 66, no.2, pp. 1411–1425, 2021.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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