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E-Learning during COVID-19 Outbreak: Cloud Computing Adoption in Indian Public Universities

Amit Kumar Bhardwaj1, Lalit Garg2,*, Arunesh Garg1, Yuvraj Gajpal3

1 L. M. Thapar School of Management, Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Dera Bassi, Punjab, India
2 Faculty of Information & Communication Technology, University of Malta, Msida, MSD2080, Malta
3 Supply Chain Management, Asper School of Business, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

* Corresponding Author: Lalit Garg. Email: email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: COVID-19 impacts on Software Engineering industry and research community)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 66(3), 2471-2492.


In the COVID-19 pandemic situation, the need to adopt cloud computing (CC) applications by education institutions, in general, and higher education (HE) institutions, in particular, has especially increased to engage students in an online mode and remotely carrying out research. The adoption of CC across various sectors, including HE, has been picking momentum in the developing countries in the last few years. In the Indian context, the CC adaptation in the HE sector (HES) remains a less thoroughly explored sector, and no comprehensive study is reported in the literature. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to overcome this research vacuum and examine the factors that impact the CC adoption (CCA) by HE institutions (HEIs) in India. The scope of the study is limited to public universities (PUs) in India. There are, in total, 465 Indian PUs and among these 304 PUs, (i.e., 65% PUs) are surveyed using questionnaire-based research. The study has put forth a novel integrated technology adoption framework consisting of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE), and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) in the context of the HES. This integrated TAM-TOE-DOI framework is utilized in the study to analyze eleven hypotheses concerning factors of CCA that have been tested using structural equation modelling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The findings reveal that competitive advantage (CA), technology compatibility (TC), technology readiness (TR), senior leadership support, security concerns, government support, and vendor support are the significant contributing factors of CCA by Indian PUs. The study contends that whereas the rest of the factors positively affect the PUs’ intention towards CCA, security concerns are a significant reason for the reluctance of these universities against adopting CC. The findings demonstrated the application of an integrated TAM-TOE-DOI framework to assess determining factors of CCA in Indian PUs. Further, the study has given useful insights into the successful CCA by Indian PUs, which will facilitate eLearning and remote working during COVID-19 or similar outbreak.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Bhardwaj, A.K., Garg, L., Garg, A., Gajpal, Y. (2021). E-learning during COVID-19 outbreak: cloud computing adoption in indian public universities. Computers, Materials & Continua, 66(3), 2471-2492.
Vancouver Style
Bhardwaj AK, Garg L, Garg A, Gajpal Y. E-learning during COVID-19 outbreak: cloud computing adoption in indian public universities. Comput Mater Contin. 2021;66(3):2471-2492
IEEE Style
A.K. Bhardwaj, L. Garg, A. Garg, and Y. Gajpal "E-Learning during COVID-19 Outbreak: Cloud Computing Adoption in Indian Public Universities," Comput. Mater. Contin., vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 2471-2492. 2021.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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