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An Improved iBAT-COOP Protocol for Cooperative Diversity in FANETs

Shahzad Hameed1, Qurratul-Ain Minhas1, Sheeraz Ahmed2, Shabana Habib4, Mohammad Kamrul Hasan3, Muhammad Islam5, Sheroz Khan5,*

1 Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
2 Iqra National University, Peshawar, Pakistan
3 Network and Communication Technology Lab, Center for Cyber Security, UKM, Bangi, Malaysia
4 Department of Information Technology, College of Computer, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Electrical Engineering, Onaizah College of Engineering & Information Technology, Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Sheroz Khan. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 67(2), 2527-2546.


Flying ad hoc networks (FANETs) present a challenging environment due to the dynamic and highly mobile nature of the network. Dynamic network topology and uncertain node mobility structure of FANETs do not aim to consider only one path transmission. Several different techniques are adopted to address the issues arising in FANETs, from game theory to clustering to channel estimation and other statistical schemes. These approaches mostly employ traditional concepts for problem solutions. One of the novel approaches that provide simpler solutions to more complex problems is to use biologically inspired schemes. Several Nature-inspired schemes address cooperation and alliance which can be used to ensure connectivity among network nodes. One such species that resembles the dynamicity of FANETs are Bats. In this paper, the biologically inspired metaheuristic technique of the BAT Algorithm is proposed to present a routing protocol called iBAT-COOP (Improved BAT Algorithm using Cooperation technique). We opt for the design implementation of the natural posture of bats to handle the necessary flying requirements. Moreover, we envision the concept of cooperative diversity using multiple relays and present an iBAT-COOP routing protocol for FANETs. This paper employs cooperation for an optimal route selection and reflects on distance, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), and link conditions to an efficient level to deal with FANET’s routing. By way of simulations, the performance of iBAT-COOP protocol outperforms BAT-FANET protocol and reduces packet loss ratio, end-to-end delay, and transmission loss by 81%, 21%, and 82% respectively. Furthermore, the average link duration is improved by 25% compared to the BAT-FANET protocol.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Hameed, S., Minhas, Q., Ahmed, S., Habib, S., Hasan, M.K. et al. (2021). An improved ibat-coop protocol for cooperative diversity in fanets. Computers, Materials & Continua, 67(2), 2527-2546.
Vancouver Style
Hameed S, Minhas Q, Ahmed S, Habib S, Hasan MK, Islam M, et al. An improved ibat-coop protocol for cooperative diversity in fanets. Comput Mater Contin. 2021;67(2):2527-2546
IEEE Style
S. Hameed et al., "An Improved iBAT-COOP Protocol for Cooperative Diversity in FANETs," Comput. Mater. Contin., vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 2527-2546. 2021.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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