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MMALE—A Methodology for Malware Analysis in Linux Environments

José Javier de Vicente Mohino1, Javier Bermejo Higuera1, Juan Ramón Bermejo Higuera1, Juan Antonio Sicilia Montalvo1,*, Manuel Sánchez Rubio1, José Javier Martínez Herraiz2

1 Escuela Superior de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Internacional de La Rioja, Logroño, 26006, La Rioja, Spain
2 Departamento de Ciencias de la Computación de la Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain

* Corresponding Author: Juan Antonio Sicilia Montalvo. Email: email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Current trends and Advancements for next-generation secure Industrial IoT)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 67(2), 1447-1469.


In a computer environment, an operating system is prone to malware, and even the Linux operating system is not an exception. In recent years, malware has evolved, and attackers have become more qualified compared to a few years ago. Furthermore, Linux-based systems have become more attractive to cybercriminals because of the increasing use of the Linux operating system in web servers and Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Windows is the most employed OS, so most of the research efforts have been focused on its malware protection rather than on other operating systems. As a result, hundreds of research articles, documents, and methodologies dedicated to malware analysis have been reported. However, there has not been much literature concerning Linux security and protection from malware. To address all these new challenges, it is necessary to develop a methodology that can standardize the required steps to perform the malware analysis in depth. A systematic analysis process makes the difference between good and ordinary malware analyses. Additionally, a deep malware comprehension can yield a faster and much more efficient malware eradication. In order to address all mentioned challenges, this article proposed a methodology for malware analysis in the Linux operating system, which is a traditionally overlooked field compared to the other operating systems. The proposed methodology is tested by a specific Linux malware, and the obtained test results have high effectiveness in malware detection.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Mohino, J.J.D.V., Higuera, J.B., Higuera, J.R.B., Montalvo, J.A.S., Rubio, M.S. et al. (2021). MMALE—A methodology for malware analysis in linux environments. Computers, Materials & Continua, 67(2), 1447-1469.
Vancouver Style
Mohino JJDV, Higuera JB, Higuera JRB, Montalvo JAS, Rubio MS, Herraiz JJM. MMALE—A methodology for malware analysis in linux environments. Comput Mater Contin. 2021;67(2):1447-1469
IEEE Style
J.J.D.V. Mohino, J.B. Higuera, J.R.B. Higuera, J.A.S. Montalvo, M.S. Rubio, and J.J.M. Herraiz "MMALE—A Methodology for Malware Analysis in Linux Environments," Comput. Mater. Contin., vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 1447-1469. 2021.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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