Vol.67, No.2, 2021, pp.1915-1932, doi:10.32604/cmc.2021.015067
Overlapping Shadow Rendering for Outdoor Augmented Reality
  • Naira Elazab1, Shaker El-Sappagh2,3, Ahmed Atwan4, Hassan Soliman1, Mohammed Elmogy1, Louai Alarabi5,*, Nagham Mekky1
1 Faculty of Computers and Information, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
2 Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 15705, Spain
3 Faculty of Computers and Artificial Intelligence, Benha University, Benha, 13512, Egypt
4 Faculty of Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia
5 College of Computer and Information Systems, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: Louai Alarabi. Email:
Received 05 November 2020; Accepted 12 December 2020; Issue published 05 February 2021
Realism rendering methods of outdoor augmented reality (AR) is an interesting topic. Realism items in outdoor AR need advanced impacts like shadows, sunshine, and relations between unreal items. A few realistic rendering approaches were built to overcome this issue. Several of these approaches are not dealt with real-time rendering. However, the issue remains an active research topic, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper introduces a new approach to accomplish reality real-time outdoor rendering by considering the relation between items in AR regarding shadows in any place during daylight. The proposed method includes three principal stages that cover various outdoor AR rendering challenges. First, real shadow recognition was generated considering the sun’s location and the intensity of the shadow. The second step involves real shadow protection. Finally, we introduced a shadow production algorithm technique and shades through its impacts on unreal items in the AR. The selected approach’s target is providing a fast shadow recognition technique without affecting the system’s accuracy. It achieved an average accuracy of 95.1% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 92.5%. The outputs demonstrated that the proposed approach had enhanced the reality of outside AR rendering. The results of the proposed method outperformed other state-of-the-art rendering shadow techniques’ outcomes.
Augmented reality; outdoor rendering; virtual shadow; shadow overlapping; hybrid shadow map
Cite This Article
N. Elazab, S. El-Sappagh, A. Atwan, H. Soliman, M. Elmogy et al., "Overlapping shadow rendering for outdoor augmented reality," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 67, no.2, pp. 1915–1932, 2021.
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