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Payload Capacity Scheme for Quran Text Watermarking Based on Vowels with Kashida

Ali A.R. Alkhafaji1,*, Nilam Nur Amir Sjarif1, M.A Shahidan1, Nurulhuda Firdaus Mohd Azmi1, Haslina Md Sarkan1, Suriayati Chuprat1, Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf2, Ehab Nabiel Al-Khanak3

1 Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, University Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 54000, Malaysia
2 Al-Nahrain University, Al-Nahrain Nanorenewable Energy Research Centre, Baghdad, Iraq
3 Department of Transport and Planning, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences (CiTG), Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands

* Corresponding Author: Ali A.R. Alkhafaji. Email: email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Application of Big Data Analytics in the Management of Business)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 67(3), 3865-3885.


The most sensitive Arabic text available online is the digital Holy Quran. This sacred Islamic religious book is recited by all Muslims worldwide including non-Arabs as part of their worship needs. Thus, it should be protected from any kind of tampering to keep its invaluable meaning intact. Different characteristics of Arabic letters like the vowels (), Kashida (extended letters), and other symbols in the Holy Quran must be secured from alterations. The cover text of the Quran and its watermarked text are different due to the low values of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Embedding Ratio (ER). A watermarking technique with enhanced attributes must, therefore, be designed for the Quran’s text using Arabic vowels with kashida. The gap addressed by this paper is to improve the security of Arabic text in the Holy Quran by using vowels with kashida. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the Quran text watermarking scheme based on a reversing technique. The methodology consists of four phases: The first phase is a pre-processing followed by the second phase-the embedding process phase—which will hide the data after the vowels. That is, if the secret bit is “1”, then the kashida is inserted; however, the kashida is not inserted if the bit is “0”. The third phase is the extraction process and the last phase is to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme by using PSNR (for the imperceptibility) and ER (for the capacity). The experimental results show that the proposed method of imperceptibility insertion is also optimized with the help of a reversing algorithm. The proposed strategy obtains a 90.5% capacity. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm attained 66.1% which is referred to as imperceptibility.


Cite This Article

A. A.R. Alkhafaji, N. Nur Amir Sjarif, M. Shahidan, N. Firdaus Mohd Azmi, H. Md Sarkan et al., "Payload capacity scheme for quran text watermarking based on vowels with kashida," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 67, no.3, pp. 3865–3885, 2021.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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