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Blockchain-Based Flexible Double-Chain Architecture and Performance Optimization for Better Sustainability in Agriculture

Luona Song1, Xiaojuan Wang1,*, Peng Wei1, Zikui Lu1, Xiaojun Wang2, Nicolas Merveille3

1 Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, 100876, China
2 Dublin City University (DCU), Dublin 9, Ireland
3 University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, H2X 3X2, Canada

* Corresponding Author: Xiaojuan Wang. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 68(1), 1429-1446.


Blockchain is an emerging decentralized distributed technology that can cross the boundaries and guarantee safe and trustworthy value transfers between participants. Combining the blockchain technology with the Internet of Things (IoT) technology to enhance the transparency and sustainability of agricultural supply chains, has attracted researchers from both academia and industry. This paper reviews the latest applications of the blockchain and IoT technologies in the sustainable agricultural supply chain management and explores the design and implementation of a blockchain-based sustainable solution. By placing the sustainable agricultural supply chain management at its core, a blockchain-based framework is designed. Considering the heterogeneity of the transaction data and the IoT data, the openness of sustainability information and the sensitivity of participants’ data, a double-chain structure is proposed including the consensus method, the transaction mechanisms, the sustainability assessment method and the performance optimization strategy. The sustainable management practices of all participants are introduced into the blockchain network, especially those allowing the government to play a more significant role in agriculture supply management. Meanwhile, to meet the scenario requirements, a data reduction method is designed to improve performance and reduce block size. Simulations are performed to evaluate the latency, throughput, costs and efficiency of the proposed structure. This paper can be a useful reference for further research on the application of blockchain and IoT technologies in sustainable agricultural management.


Cite This Article

L. Song, X. Wang, P. Wei, Z. Lu, X. Wang et al., "Blockchain-based flexible double-chain architecture and performance optimization for better sustainability in agriculture," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 68, no.1, pp. 1429–1446, 2021.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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