Vol.68, No.2, 2021, pp.2665-2680, doi:10.32604/cmc.2021.016836
Optimal Cost-Aware Paradigm for Off-Grid Green Cellular Networks in Oman
  • Mohammed H. Alsharif1, Kannadasan Raju2, Abu Jahid3, Mahmoud A. Albreem4, Peerapong Uthansakul5,*, Jamel Nebhen6, Venkatesan Chandrasekaran2
1 Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, 05006, Korea
2 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur, Chennai, 602117, India
3 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, K1N 6N5, ON, Canada
4 Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, A’Sharqiyah University, Ibra, 400, Oman
5 School of Telecommunication Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
6 Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, College of Computer Engineering and Sciences, Alkharj, 11942, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: Peerapong Uthansakul. Email:
Received 13 January 2021; Accepted 17 February 2021; Issue published 13 April 2021

Green wireless networks or energy-efficient wireless networks have gained popularity as a research topic due to the ecological and economic concerns of cellular operators. The specific power supply requirements for the cellular base station, such as cost-effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, and reliability, can be met by utilizing the technological advances in renewable energy. There are numerous drivers for the deployment of renewable energy technologies and the transition towards green energy. Renewable energy is free, clean, and abundant in most locations throughout the year. Accordingly, this work proposes a novel framework for energy-efficient solar-powered base stations for the Oman site, specifically for off-grid locations where fuel transportation for diesel generator (DG) is a serious concern. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system for off-grid sites, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables optimization software is adapted by considering real-time conditions and its technical feasibility. Different cost factors such as capital cost, salvage cost, replacement cost, operational, and maintenance cost of PV panels, inverters, and batteries also undergo extensive analysis. From the observed results, the total net present cost (NPC) of the proposed system is $27,887, while the net NPC of the DG is estimated at $32,900. Remarkably, the proposed scheme can potentially achieve considerable savings in the operational expenditure at approximately 15.24%. Indeed, these outcomes can provide profound economic, technical, and ecological benefits to the cellular operators of Oman. It also ensures a sizeable reduction in greenhouse gas that supports sustainable green wireless network deployment in remote areas.

Wireless networks; green wireless networks; green communications; sustainability; OPEX
Cite This Article
M. H. Alsharif, K. Raju, A. Jahid, M. A. Albreem, P. Uthansakul et al., "Optimal cost-aware paradigm for off-grid green cellular networks in oman," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 68, no.2, pp. 2665–2680, 2021.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.