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Minimizing Warpage for Macro-Size Fused Deposition Modeling Parts

Thanh Thuong Huynh1, Tien V. T. Nguyen2,3, Quoc Manh Nguyen4, Trieu Khoa Nguyen2,*

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Can Tho University, Campus II, Can Tho, Vietnam
2 Faculty of Mechanical Technology, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh, 70000, Vietnam
3 Mechanical Engineering Department, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, 80778, Taiwan
4 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Hung Yen, 16000, Vietnam

* Corresponding Author: Trieu Khoa Nguyen. Email:

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Application of Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, and Learning Approach for Learning Process in COVID-19/Industrial Revolution 4.0)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 68(3), 2913-2923.


In this study, we investigated warpage and corner lifting minimization for three-dimensional printed parts generated by macro-size fused deposition modeling (FDM). First, the reasons for warpage were theoretically elucidated. This approach revealed that the thermal deformation and differential volumetric shrinkage of the extruded molten plastic resulted in warpage of FDM parts. In addition, low adhesion between the deposited model and the heated or non-heated printing bed may intensify warpage further. As a next step, initial small-size and medium-size models were used to identify parameters to manage and minimize warpage in a way that would reduce material consumption and running time. Finally, a macro-size model was built to experimentally investigate and verify the technical solutions to minimize the warpage of FDM parts. In conclusion, an improved part with reduced warpage was efficiently produced after detailed consideration of thermal effects and adhesion force. Potential exists to widen the application scope of FDM technology in manufacturing for processes like thermoforming that involve mold core fabrication with heating. This technology, which has applications not only in mechanical engineering but also in related engineering fields, is convenient and could readily be applied to practical manufacturing industries.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Huynh, T.T., Nguyen, T.V.T., Nguyen, Q.M., Nguyen, T.K. (2021). Minimizing warpage for macro-size fused deposition modeling parts. Computers, Materials & Continua, 68(3), 2913-2923.
Vancouver Style
Huynh TT, Nguyen TVT, Nguyen QM, Nguyen TK. Minimizing warpage for macro-size fused deposition modeling parts. Comput Mater Contin. 2021;68(3):2913-2923
IEEE Style
T.T. Huynh, T.V.T. Nguyen, Q.M. Nguyen, and T.K. Nguyen "Minimizing Warpage for Macro-Size Fused Deposition Modeling Parts," Comput. Mater. Contin., vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 2913-2923. 2021.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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