Vol.68, No.3, 2021, pp.2825-2842, doi:10.32604/cmc.2021.016682
Distributed Trusted Computing for Blockchain-Based Crowdsourcing
  • Yihuai Liang, Yan Li, Byeong-Seok Shin*
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 22212, Korea
* Corresponding Author: Byeong-Seok Shin. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances of AI and Blockchain technologies for Future Smart City)
Received 08 January 2021; Accepted 01 March 2021; Issue published 06 May 2021
A centralized trusted execution environment (TEE) has been extensively studied to provide secure and trusted computing. However, a TEE might become a throughput bottleneck if it is used to evaluate data quality when collecting large-scale data in a crowdsourcing system. It may also have security problems compromised by attackers. Here, we propose a scheme, named dTEE, for building a platform for providing distributed trusted computing by leveraging TEEs. The platform is used as an infrastructure of trusted computations for blockchain-based crowdsourcing systems, especially to securely evaluate data quality and manage remuneration: these operations are handled by a TEE group. First, dTEE uses a public blockchain with smart contracts to manage TEEs without reliance on any trusted third parties. Second, to update TEE registration information and rule out zombie TEEs, dTEE uses a reporting mechanism. To attract TEE owners to join in and provide service of trusted computations, it uses a fair monetary incentive mechanism. Third, to account for malicious attackers, we design a model with Byzantine fault tolerance, not limited to a crash-failure model. Finally, we conduct an extensive evaluation of our design on a local cluster. The results show that dTEE finishes evaluating 10,000 images within one minute and achieves about 65 tps throughput when evaluating Sudoku solution data with collective signatures both in a group of 120 TEEs.
Crowdsourcing; blockchain; distributed trusted execution environment; Byzantine fault tolerance
Cite This Article
Y. Liang, Y. Li and B. Shin, "Distributed trusted computing for blockchain-based crowdsourcing," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 68, no.3, pp. 2825–2842, 2021.
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