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Hybrid Nanofluid Flow with Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions

Iskandar Waini1,2, Anuar Ishak2,*, Ioan Pop3

1 Fakulti Teknologi Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
2 Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
3 Department of Mathematics, Babeş-Bolyai University, 400084, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

* Corresponding Author: Anuar Ishak. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 68(3), 3255-3269. https://doi.org/10.32604/cmc.2021.017643

Abstract

This study examines the stagnation point flow over a stretching/shrinking sheet in a hybrid nanofluid with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. The hybrid nanofluid consists of copper (Cu) and alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles which are added into water to form Cu-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid. The similarity equations are obtained using a similarity transformation. Then, the function bvp4c in MATLAB is utilised to obtain the numerical results. The dual solutions are found for limited values of the stretching/shrinking parameter. Also, the turning point arises in the shrinking region (λ < 0). Besides, the presence of hybrid nanoparticles enhances the heat transfer rate, skin friction coefficient, and the concentration gradient. In addition, the concentration gradient is intensified with the heterogeneous reaction but the effect is opposite for the homogeneous reaction. Furthermore, the velocity and the concentration increase, whereas the temperature decreases for higher compositions of hybrid nanoparticles. Moreover, the concentration decreases for larger values of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. It is consistent with the fact that higher reaction rate cause a reduction in the rate of diffusion. However, the velocity and the temperature are not affected by these parameters. From these observations, it can be concluded that the effect of the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions is dominant on the concentration profiles. Two solutions are obtained for a single value of parameter. The temporal stability analysis shows that only one of these solutions is stable and thus physically reliable over time.

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APA Style
Waini, I., Ishak, A., Pop, I. (2021). Hybrid nanofluid flow with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Computers, Materials & Continua, 68(3), 3255-3269. https://doi.org/10.32604/cmc.2021.017643
Vancouver Style
Waini I, Ishak A, Pop I. Hybrid nanofluid flow with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Comput Mater Contin. 2021;68(3):3255-3269 https://doi.org/10.32604/cmc.2021.017643
IEEE Style
I. Waini, A. Ishak, and I. Pop "Hybrid Nanofluid Flow with Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions," Comput. Mater. Contin., vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 3255-3269. 2021. https://doi.org/10.32604/cmc.2021.017643

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cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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