Open Access


Real Objects Understanding Using 3D Haptic Virtual Reality for E-Learning Education

Samia Allaoua Chelloug1,*, Hamid Ashfaq2, Suliman A. Alsuhibany3, Mohammad Shorfuzzaman4, Abdulmajeed Alsufyani4, Ahmad Jalal2, Jeongmin Park5
1 Department of Information Technology, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh, 11671, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Computer Science, Air University, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan
3 Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Qassim University, Buraydah, 51452, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Computer Science, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Computer Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung-si, Gyeonggi-do, 237, Korea
* Corresponding Author: Samia Allaoua Chelloug. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(1), 1607-1624.

Received 11 May 2022; Accepted 24 June 2022; Issue published 22 September 2022


In the past two decades, there has been a lot of work on computer vision technology that incorporates many tasks which implement basic filtering to image classification. The major research areas of this field include object detection and object recognition. Moreover, wireless communication technologies are presently adopted and they have impacted the way of education that has been changed. There are different phases of changes in the traditional system. Perception of three-dimensional (3D) from two-dimensional (2D) image is one of the demanding tasks. Because human can easily perceive but making 3D using software will take time manually. Firstly, the blackboard has been replaced by projectors and other digital screens so such that people can understand the concept better through visualization. Secondly, the computer labs in schools are now more common than ever. Thirdly, online classes have become a reality. However, transferring to online education or e-learning is not without challenges. Therefore, we propose a method for improving the efficiency of e-learning. Our proposed system consists of two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) features extraction using machine learning and image processing. Then, these features are utilized to generate 3D mesh using ellipsoidal deformation method. After that, 3D bounding box estimation is applied. Our results show that there is a need to move to 3D virtual reality (VR) with haptic sensors in the field of e-learning for a better understanding of real-world objects. Thus, people will have more information as compared to the traditional or simple online education tools. We compare our result with the ShapeNet dataset to check the accuracy of our proposed method. Our proposed system achieved an accuracy of 90.77% on plane class, 85.72% on chair class, and car class have 72.14%. Mean accuracy of our method is 70.89%.


Artificial intelligence; e-learning; online education system; computer vision; virtual reality; 3D haptic

Cite This Article

S. A. Chelloug, H. Ashfaq, S. A. Alsuhibany, M. Shorfuzzaman, A. Alsufyani et al., "Real objects understanding using 3d haptic virtual reality for e-learning education," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 74, no.1, pp. 1607–1624, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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