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Detection of Copy-Move Forgery in Digital Images Using Singular Value Decomposition

Zaid Nidhal Khudhair1,4, Farhan Mohamed2, Amjad Rehman3,*, Tanzila Saba3, Saeed Ali bahaj3

1 Faculty of Engineering, School of Computing, University Technology of Malaysia, Johar Bahru, Malaysia
2 UTM-IRDA MaGICX, Institute of Human Centered Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
3 Artificial Intelligence & Data Analytics Lab CCIS Prince Sultan University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 Computer Techniques Engineering Department, Faculty of Information Technology, Imam Ja’afar Al-Sadiq University, Baghdad, Iraq

* Corresponding Author: Amjad Rehman. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(2), 4135-4147.


This paper presents an improved approach for detecting copy-move forgery based on singular value decomposition (SVD). It is a block-based method where the image is scanned from left to right and top to down by a sliding window with a determined size. At each step, the SVD is determined. First, the diagonal matrix’s maximum value (norm) is selected (representing the scaling factor for SVD and a fixed value for each set of matrix elements even when rotating the matrix or scaled). Then, the similar norms are grouped, and each leading group is separated into many subgroups (elements of each subgroup are neighbors) according to 8-adjacency (the subgroups for each leading group must be far from others by a specific distance). After that, a weight is assigned for each subgroup to classify the image as forgery or not. Finally, the F1 score of the proposed system is measured, reaching 99.1%. This approach is robust against rotation, scaling, noisy images, and illumination variation. It is compared with other similar methods and presents very promised results.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Khudhair, Z.N., Mohamed, F., Rehman, A., Saba, T., bahaj, S.A. (2023). Detection of copy-move forgery in digital images using singular value decomposition. Computers, Materials & Continua, 74(2), 4135-4147.
Vancouver Style
Khudhair ZN, Mohamed F, Rehman A, Saba T, bahaj SA. Detection of copy-move forgery in digital images using singular value decomposition. Comput Mater Contin. 2023;74(2):4135-4147
IEEE Style
Z.N. Khudhair, F. Mohamed, A. Rehman, T. Saba, and S.A. bahaj "Detection of Copy-Move Forgery in Digital Images Using Singular Value Decomposition," Comput. Mater. Contin., vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 4135-4147. 2023.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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