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Lightning Search Algorithm with Deep Transfer Learning-Based Vehicle Classification

Mrim M. Alnfiai*

Department of Information Technology, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Mrim M. Alnfiai. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(3), 6505-6521.


There is a drastic increase experienced in the production of vehicles in recent years across the globe. In this scenario, vehicle classification system plays a vital part in designing Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for automatic highway toll collection, autonomous driving, and traffic management. Recently, computer vision and pattern recognition models are useful in designing effective vehicle classification systems. But these models are trained using a small number of hand-engineered features derived from small datasets. So, such models cannot be applied for real-time road traffic conditions. Recent developments in Deep Learning (DL)-enabled vehicle classification models are highly helpful in resolving the issues that exist in traditional models. In this background, the current study develops a Lightning Search Algorithm with Deep Transfer Learning-based Vehicle Classification Model for ITS, named LSADTL-VCITS model. The key objective of the presented LSADTL-VCITS model is to automatically detect and classify the types of vehicles. To accomplish this, the presented LSADTL-VCITS model initially employs You Only Look Once (YOLO)-v5 object detector with Capsule Network (CapsNet) as baseline model. In addition, the proposed LSADTL-VCITS model applies LSA with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) for detection and classification of the vehicles. The performance of the proposed LSADTL-VCITS model was experimentally validated using benchmark dataset and the outcomes were examined under several measures. The experimental outcomes established the superiority of the proposed LSADTL-VCITS model compared to existing approaches.


Cite This Article

M. M. Alnfiai, "Lightning search algorithm with deep transfer learning-based vehicle classification," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 74, no.3, pp. 6505–6521, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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