Open AccessOpen Access


A Review and Analysis of Localization Techniques in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Seema Rani1, Anju1, Anupma Sangwan1, Krishna Kumar2, Kashif Nisar3, Tariq Rahim Soomro3, Ag. Asri Ag. Ibrahim4,*, Manoj Gupta5, Laxmi Chand5, Sadiq Ali Khan6

1 Department of CSE, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, 125001, India
2 Department of Hydro and Renewable Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
3 College of Computer Science and Information Systems, Institute of Business Management, Korangi Creek Road, Karachi, 75190, Sindh, Pakistan
4 Faculty of Computing and Informatics, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, Kota Kinabalu, 88400, Sabah, Malaysia
5 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, JECRC University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
6 Computer Science Department UBIT, Karachi University, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan

* Corresponding Author: Ag. Asri Ag. Ibrahim. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 75(3), 5697-5715.


In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). The focus of research in this area is now on solving the problems associated with large-scale UWSN. One of the major issues in such a network is the localization of underwater nodes. Localization is required for tracking objects and detecting the target. It is also considered tagging of data where sensed contents are not found of any use without localization. This is useless for application until the position of sensed content is confirmed. This article’s major goal is to review and analyze underwater node localization to solve the localization issues in UWSN. The present paper describes various existing localization schemes and broadly categorizes these schemes as Centralized and Distributed localization schemes underwater. Also, a detailed subdivision of these localization schemes is given. Further, these localization schemes are compared from different perspectives. The detailed analysis of these schemes in terms of certain performance metrics has been discussed in this paper. At the end, the paper addresses several future directions for potential research in improving localization problems of UWSN.


Cite This Article

S. Rani, . Anju, A. Sangwan, K. Kumar, K. Nisar et al., "A review and analysis of localization techniques in underwater wireless sensor networks," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 75, no.3, pp. 5697–5715, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 398


  • 236


  • 0


Share Link