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Improved-Equalized Cluster Head Election Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Muhammad Shahzeb Ali1, Ali Alqahtani2,*, Ansar Munir Shah1, Adel Rajab2, Mahmood Ul Hassan3, Asadullah Shaikh2, Khairan Rajab2, Basit Shahzad4

1 Department of Computer Science, Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, 5932, Pakistan
2 College of Computer Science and Information Systems, Najran University, Najran, 61441, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Computer Skills, Deanship of Preparatory Year, Najran University, Najran, 61441, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Engineering, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan

* Corresponding Author: Ali Alqahtani. Email:

Computer Systems Science and Engineering 2023, 44(1), 845-858.


Throughout the use of the small battery-operated sensor nodes encourage us to develop an energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The development of an energy-efficient routing protocol is a mainly adopted technique to enhance the lifetime of WSN. Many routing protocols are available, but the issue is still alive. Clustering is one of the most important techniques in the existing routing protocols. In the clustering-based model, the important thing is the selection of the cluster heads. In this paper, we have proposed a scheme that uses the bubble sort algorithm for cluster head selection by considering the remaining energy and the distance of the nodes in each cluster. Initially, the bubble sort algorithm chose the two nodes with the maximum remaining energy in the cluster and chose a cluster head with a small distance. The proposed scheme performs hierarchal routing and direct routing with some energy thresholds. The simulation will be performed in MATLAB to justify its performance and results and compared with the ECHERP model to justify its performance. Moreover, the simulations will be performed in two scenarios, gateway-based and without gateway to achieve more energy-efficient results.


Cite This Article

M. Shahzeb Ali, A. Alqahtani, A. Munir Shah, A. Rajab, M. Ul Hassan et al., "Improved-equalized cluster head election routing protocol for wireless sensor networks," Computer Systems Science and Engineering, vol. 44, no.1, pp. 845–858, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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