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FSE2R: An Improved Collision-Avoidance-based Energy Efficient Route Selection Protocol in USN

Prasant Ku. Dash1, Lopamudra Hota2, Madhumita Panda3, N. Z. Jhanjhi4,*, Kshira Sagar Sahoo5, Mehedi Masud6
1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sambalpur University, Odisha, 768019, India
2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, NIT, Rourkela, Odisha, 769008, India
3 Department of Computer Science, G.M University, Sambalpur, Odisha, 768001, India
4 School of Computer Science and Engineering, SCE, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, 47500, Malaysia
5 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, SRM University, Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh, 522502, India
6 Department of Computer Science, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: N. Z. Jhanjhi. Email:

Computer Systems Science and Engineering 2023, 44(3), 2225-2242.

Received 01 November 2021; Accepted 16 February 2022; Issue published 01 August 2022


The 3D Underwater Sensor Network (USNs) has become the most optimistic medium for tracking and monitoring underwater environment. Energy and collision are two most critical factors in USNs for both sparse and dense regions. Due to harsh ocean environment, it is a challenge to design a reliable energy efficient with collision free protocol. Diversity in link qualities may cause collision and frequent communication lead to energy loss; that effects the network performance. To overcome these challenges a novel protocol Forwarder Selection Energy Efficient Routing (FSE2R) is proposed. Our proposal’s key idea is based on computation of node distance from the sink, Residual Energy (RE) of each node and Signal to Interference Noise Ratio (SINR). The node distance from sink and RE is computed for reliable forwarder node selection and SINR is used for analysis of collision. The novel proposal compares with existing protocols like H2AB, DEEP, and E2LR to achieve Quality of Service (QoS) in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption. The comparative analysis shows that FSE2R gives on an average 30% less energy consumption, 24.62% better PDR and 48.31% less end-to-end delay compared to other protocols.


USN; energy efficiency; collision avoidance; MAC; SINR

Cite This Article

P. K. Dash, L. Hota, M. Panda, N. Z. Jhanjhi, K. S. Sahoo et al., "Fse2r: an improved collision-avoidance-based energy efficient route selection protocol in usn," Computer Systems Science and Engineering, vol. 44, no.3, pp. 2225–2242, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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