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Upgrading the Quality of Solid Fuel Made from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) Wastes Using Hydrothermal Carbonization Treatment

Riina Syivarulli1,2, Nugroho Agung Pambudi2,*, Mochamad Syamsiro3, Lip Huat Saw4

1 Graduate Program of Vocational Teacher Education, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, 57126, Indonesia
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, 57126, Indonesia
3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Janabadra University, Yogyakarta, 55231, Indonesia
4 Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, UTAR, Kajang, 43000, Malaysia

* Corresponding Author: Nugroho Agung Pambudi. Email: email

Energy Engineering 2021, 118(1), 189-197. https://doi.org/10.32604/EE.2020.010493

Abstract

One of the major problems faced in managing biomass waste to higher quality products is choosing the right technology. Wastes are used as an alternative fuel, with increase in the calorific value. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a biomass conversion technology, used to obtain solid fuel. This study aims to utilize of Calophyllum inophyllum as an alternative solid fuel through HTC. The calorific value and proximate of the hydrochar will be determined and analyzed to find out its quality. The experiments were carried out at temperature variations of 160°C, 190°C, and 220°C and holding times of 30 and 60 minutes. The results show that an increase in temperature and holding time causes a decline in the moisture content 1.87%, volatile matter 54.03%, and ash content 12.35%, respectively, leading to elevations in the fixed carbon at 31.75%. In addition, the highest calorific value of 4149 Kcal/Kg was produced at a temperature of 220°C, within a holding time of 60 minutes. The results showed a significant increase in the quality of solid fuels between 3500–4611 Kcal/Kg in accordance with the American Standard Testing and Materials (ASTM). Therefore, this research leads to an important finding that Calophyllum inophyllum waste through the HTC process can be used as an alternative fuel to substitute lignite coal, which is environmentally friendly.

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APA Style
Syivarulli, R., Pambudi, N.A., Syamsiro, M., Saw, L.H. (2021). Upgrading the quality of solid fuel made from nyamplung (calophyllum inophyllum) wastes using hydrothermal carbonization treatment. Energy Engineering, 118(1), 189-197. https://doi.org/10.32604/EE.2020.010493
Vancouver Style
Syivarulli R, Pambudi NA, Syamsiro M, Saw LH. Upgrading the quality of solid fuel made from nyamplung (calophyllum inophyllum) wastes using hydrothermal carbonization treatment. Energ Eng. 2021;118(1):189-197 https://doi.org/10.32604/EE.2020.010493
IEEE Style
R. Syivarulli, N.A. Pambudi, M. Syamsiro, and L.H. Saw "Upgrading the Quality of Solid Fuel Made from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) Wastes Using Hydrothermal Carbonization Treatment," Energ. Eng., vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 189-197. 2021. https://doi.org/10.32604/EE.2020.010493



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